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Rothamsted Research has applied to DEFRA for a licence to carry out field trials of gene edited (GE) wheat.

The plan is for a project of up to five years, ending in 2026, with plants being sown in September/October each year and harvested the following September.

This application follows previous GM wheat and camelina trials carried out by Rothamsted Research across two sites in Hertfordshire and Suffolk over the last 10 years.

The project involves wheat in which the concentration of an amino acid called asparagine has been reduced in the grain using CRISPR, a GE technique. Asparagine is one of the amino acids used to make proteins but in its free (non-protein) form it can be converted to a toxic contaminant called acrylamide during baking and high-temperature processing.

Study lead Professor Nigel Halford said: “We believe that asparagine levels can be reduced substantially without compromising grain quality. This would benefit consumers by reducing their exposure to acrylamide from their diet, and food businesses by enabling them to comply with regulations on the presence of acrylamide in their products.

“That is a long-term goal, however, and this project aims to assess the performance of the low asparagine wheat plants in the field and measure the concentration of asparagine in the grain produced under field conditions.”

CRISPR is a gene editing technique in which small changes are made in a target gene, in this case to knock that gene out so that a functional protein is no longer made from it. The process initially involves genetic modification to introduce genes required for CRISPR into the plant.

Once the edit has been made the GM part can be removed from the plants by self-pollinating them and identifying plants in the next generation that are no longer GM.

Checking for the presence of the GM genes is straightforward using a test called PCR (the same type of test as that used to detect COVID-19).

The plants in this project initially had three genetic modifications made to them, and the ones being used for the field trial still have the genes from one or more of these.

“The larger number of plants we can have in the field trial compared with a glasshouse will make it easier to identify plants that are no longer GM. This means that the first year of the trial will have plants that are both GE and GM but by the third year of the trial we expect them to be GE only,” said Professor Halford.

Defra received Rothamsted’s application on 06/04/2021, and the department has 90 days from then to process it - unless they have to stop the clock for any clarification or additional information.

The department’s reference for the trial is 21/R08/01.

The Secretary of State will consider any representations made to him relating to any risks of damage to the environment posed by the release of the GE/GM wheat within a period that he shall specify in accordance with the Genetically Modified Organisms (Deliberate Release) Regulations 2002.

The public register can be inspected by contacting the Defra GM Team at Second Floor, Seacole Building, Marsham Street, London SW1P 4DF (e-mail:, and include the application reference number, 21/R08/01, in the e-mail title). This information will also be placed on the GOV.UK website.

The project also involves the University of Bristol, who will be helping to develop rapid systems to detect the edited genes and is funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council’s Super Follow-on Fund. This funding covers preparation for the trial and the first year of the trial itself. We will seek further funding for the subsequent four years.



Prof. Nigel Halford

Crop Scientist


Rothamsted Research is the longest-running agricultural research institute in the world. We work from gene to field with a proud history of ground-breaking discoveries in areas as diverse as crop management, statistical interpretation and soil health. Our founders, in 1843, were the pioneers of modern agriculture, and we are known for our imaginative science and our collaborative approach to developing innovative farm practice.
Through independent research, we make significant contributions to improving agri-food systems in the UK and internationally, with economic impact estimated to exceed £3 bn in annual contribution to the UK economy. Our strength lies in our systems approach, which combines strategic research, interdisciplinary teams and multiple partnerships.
Rothamsted is home to three unique National Bioscience Research Infrastructures which are open to researchers from all over the world: The Long-Term Experiments, Rothamsted Insect Survey and the North Wyke Farm Platform.
We are strategically funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC), with additional support from other national and international funding streams, and from industry. We are also supported by the Lawes Agricultural Trust (LAT).


The Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council is part of UK Research and Innovation, a non-departmental public body funded by a grant-in-aid from the UK government.
BBSRC invests to push back the frontiers of biology and deliver a healthy, prosperous and sustainable future. Through our investments, we build and support a vibrant, dynamic and inclusive community which delivers ground-breaking discoveries and develops bio-based solutions that contribute to tackling global challenges, such as sustainable food production, climate change, and healthy ageing.
As part of UK Research and Innovation (UKRI), we not only play a pivotal role in fostering connections that enable the UK’s world-class research and innovation system to flourish – we also have a responsibility to enable the creation of a research culture that is diverse, resilient, and engaged.
BBSRC proudly forges interdisciplinary collaborations where excellent bioscience has a fundamental role. We pioneer approaches that enhance the equality, diversity, and inclusion of talent by investing in people, infrastructure, technologies, and partnerships on a global scale.


The Lawes Agricultural Trust, established in 1889 by Sir John Bennet Lawes, supports Rothamsted Research’s national and international agricultural science through the provision of land, facilities and funding. LAT, a charitable trust, owns the estates at Harpenden and Broom's Barn, including many of the buildings used by Rothamsted Research. LAT provides an annual research grant to the Director, accommodation for nearly 200 people, and support for fellowships for young scientists from developing countries. LAT also makes capital grants to help modernise facilities at Rothamsted, or invests in new buildings.