NEW STUDY SHOWS WHEAT CROP YIELD CAN BE INCREASED BY UP TO 20 PER CENT USING NEW CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY
The application, based on controlling naturally-occurring sugars, also increases crop resilience to drought
UK scientists have created a synthetic molecule that when applied to crops, has been shown to increase the size and starch content of wheat grains in the lab by up to 20 per cent. The new plant application, developed by Rothamsted Research and Oxford University, could help to solve the issue of increasing food insecurity across the globe; 795 million people are undernourished and this year’s El Nino2 has shown how vulnerable many countries are to climate-induced drought.
The results of the study were published today in Nature, which details the method based on using synthetic ‘precursors’ of the sugar trehalose 6-phosphate (T6P); a first-of-its-kind strategy that used chemistry to modify how sugars are used by plants. Rothamsted Research, which receives strategic funding from the BBSRC, identified this naturally occurring sugar as being crucial in controlling how wheat uses sucrose, the main fuel generated by photosynthesis. Sucrose is key to the development of wheat grains. They identified that the more T6P that is available to wheat grains as they grow, the greater the yield.
Utilising the chemical expertise of Oxford University’s Chemical Research Laboratory, a modified version of T6P that could be taken up by the plant and then released within the plant in sunlight was developed. This T6P ‘precursor’ was added to a solution and then sprayed onto the plants, causing a ‘pulse’ of T6P, which resulted in more sucrose being drawn into the grain to make starch. When tested in the lab, under controlled environmental conditions, this approach resulted in an increase in wheat grain size and yield of up to 20 per cent. The study also demonstrated that application of the precursor molecule could enhance plants’ ability to recover from drought, which could ultimately help farmers to overcome difficult seasons more easily in the future.
Professor Ben Davis, Department of Chemistry, Oxford University said: “The tests we conducted in the lab show real promise for a technique that, in the future, could radically alter how we farm not just wheat but many different crops. The ‘Green Revolution’ in the 20th century was a period where more resilient, high-yield wheat varieties were created, an innovation that has been claimed to have helped save one billion lives. By now developing new chemical methods based on an understanding of biology, we can secure our food sources and add to this legacy. That way we can make sure as many people have access to enough food as possible and that the less fortunate can be rescued from unexpected hardship.”
The method has potential to increase yields across a wide number of crops, as T6P is present and performs the same function in all plants and crops.
Dr Matthew Paul, Senior Scientist - Plant Biology and Crop Science, Rothamsted Research, adds: “This study is a proof of concept, showing us that it is possible to influence how plants use the fuel they produce for agricultural benefit, both in terms of yield and also resilience to drier conditions. The next stage of work is to replicate this experiment as much as possible in the field in different environments, for which we’ll need to understand how to scale up production of the T6P precursor and determine the effect that more variable conditions may have on results.”
Wheat plants were grown until each plant flowered, after which varying concentrations of T6P solution (between 0.1, and 10 mM) were added to different plants to assess the effect each concentration had on growth. The wheat was then sprayed with the solutions either on the ears or the whole plant at intervals of 5 days after the plants first flowered, with just one application sufficient to increase yield. The plants were then harvested once ripe, with the grains weighed and analysed for amount of starch and protein present. To test the responses to drought conditions, the plants were grown until just before the wheat plant developed its stem; it was then deprived of water for ten days, with T6P solutions being added on the 9th of these days. Plants were harvested after re-watering to assess biomass recovery after the drought period.
The research was made possible thanks to funding from BBSRC.
About Rothamsted Research
Rothamsted Research is the longest-running agricultural research institute in the world. We work from gene to field with a proud history of ground-breaking discoveries, from crop treatment to crop protection, from statistical interpretation to soils management. Our founders, in 1843, were the pioneers of modern agriculture, and we are known for our imaginative science and our collaborative influence on fresh thinking and farming practices.
Through independent science and innovation, we make significant contributions to improving agri-food systems in the UK and internationally. In terms of the institute’s economic contribution, the cumulative impact of our work in the UK was calculated to exceed £3000 million a year in 20151. Our strength lies in our systems approach, which combines science and strategic research, interdisciplinary teams and partnerships.
Rothamsted is also home to three unique resources. These National Capabilities are open to researchers from all over the world: The Long-Term Experiments, Rothamsted Insect Survey and the North Wyke Farm Platform.
We are strategically funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC), with additional support from other national and international funding streams, and from industry. We are also supported by the Lawes Agricultural Trust (LAT).
For more information, visit https://www.rothamsted.ac.uk/; Twitter @Rothamsted
1Rothamsted Research and the Value of Excellence: A synthesis of the available evidence, by Séan Rickard (Oct 2015)
The Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council is part of UK Research and Innovation, a non-departmental public body funded by a grant-in-aid from the UK government.
BBSRC invests in world-class bioscience research and training on behalf of the UK public. Our aim is to further scientific knowledge, to promote economic growth, wealth and job creation and to improve quality of life in the UK and beyond.
Funded by government, BBSRC invested £469 million in world-class bioscience in 2016-17. We support research and training in universities and strategically funded institutes. BBSRC research and the people we fund are helping society to meet major challenges, including food security, green energy and healthier, longer lives. Our investments underpin important UK economic sectors, such as farming, food, industrial biotechnology and pharmaceuticals.
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The Lawes Agricultural Trust, established in 1889 by Sir John Bennet Lawes, supports Rothamsted Research’s national and international agricultural science through the provision of land, facilities and funding. LAT, a charitable trust, owns the estates at Harpenden and Broom's Barn, including many of the buildings used by Rothamsted Research. LAT provides an annual research grant to the Director, accommodation for nearly 200 people, and support for fellowships for young scientists from developing countries. LAT also makes capital grants to help modernise facilities at Rothamsted, or invests in new buildings.