Rothamsted Research

where knowledge grows


Prof Steve McGrath



Rothamsted Research, West Common, Harpenden, Hertfordshire, AL5 2JQ


  • Programme Leader
    SSGS Harpenden


Past Projects

Project Leader

  • Soil protection and remediation
  • Developing terrestrial biotic ligand models and testing a transformation & dissolution protocol (TDP) for soils
  • Effects of sewage sludge on agricultural productivity and soil fertility (2008-09 Preservation and continuity)
  • The "Long-term Metal Salts Experiments": Maintenance of inorganic metal salt experimental patforms
  • Quantifying the sulphur supply from farm manures to winter wheat crops


  • Trace element dynamics in soils and plant uptake
  • BBSRC CASE Studentship: Optimising the amount and availability of iron in bread wheat cultivars to prevent global iron deficiency
  • BBSRC Quota Studentship: Decreasing arsenic accumulation in rice to reduce health risk
  • Mechanisms of arsenic (As) uptake and transport in rice
  • Taw River improvement project research partnership
  • Phosphate source identification in the River Camel catchment using 180-PO4 isotopic tracing techniques


Research interests include:

  • Optimisation of micronutrient status in food crops
  • Risk assessment of metals and metalloids in soils
  • Bio-indicators of pollution, focussing on heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants
  • Biogeochemistry of trace elements in soils, microbes and plants
  • Biological impacts of waste disposal
  • Phytoremediation
  • Soil remediation
  • Sulphur nutrition of crops and its effects on yield and quality




Papers published in refereed journals:

  1. Poblaciones, M.J., Rodrigo, S. Santamaría O., Chen Y. and McGrath S.P. (2014) Agronomic selenium biofortification in Triticum durum under Mediterranean conditions: From grain to cooked pasta. Food Chemistry, 146, 378–384.
  2. Liu W.J., McGrath S.P. and Zhao F.J. (2013) Silicon has opposite effects on the accumulation of inorganic and methylated arsenic species in rice. Plant and Soil, XX, yy-yy. DOI 10.1007/s11104-013-1991-7
  3. Naidu R., Channey R., McConnell S., Johnston N., Semple K.T., McGrath S.P., Dries V., Nathanail P., Harmsen J., Pruszinski A., MacMillan J. and Palanisami T. (2013) Towards bioavailability-based soil criteria: past, present and future perspectives. Environ Sci Pollut Res, XX, yy-yy. DOI 10.1007/s11356-013-1617-x
  4. Poblaciones, M.J., Rodrigo, S., Santamaria, O., Chen, Y. and McGrath S.P. (2013) Selenium accumulation and speciation in biofortified chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under Mediterranean conditions. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, XX, yy-yy. DOI 10.1002/jsfa.6372
  5. McGrath, S.P. and Zhao, F.J. (2013) Concentrations of metals and metalloids in soils that have the potential to lead to exceedance of maximum limit concentrations of contaminants in food and feed. Soil Use and Management, XX, YY-YY. doi: 10.1111/sum.12080
  6. Moore, K. L., Chen, Y., van de Meene, A. M.L., Liu, W.J., Geraki, T., Mosselmans, F., McGrath, S. P., Grovenor, C. and Zhao, F.J. (2013) Combined NanoSIMS and Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence reveals distinct cellular and subcellular distribution patterns of trace elements in rice tissues. New Phytologist, 201, 104-115. doi: 10.1111/nph.12497
  7. Zhao, F.J., Harris, E., Jia, Y., Ma, J., Wu, L., Liu, W., McGrath, S.P., Zhou, J. and  Zhu, Y.G. (2013) Arsenic methylation in soils and its relationship with microbial arsM abundance and diversity, and as speciation in rice. Environmental Science and Technology, 47, 7147−7154.
  8. Hartley, T.N., Macdonald, A.J., McGrath, S.P. and Zhao, F.J. (2013) Historical arsenic contamination of soil due to long-term phosphate fertiliser applications. Environmental Pollution, 180, 259-264.
  9. Meharg, A.A., Norton, G., Deacon, C., Williams, P., Adomako, E.E., Price, A., Zhu, Y., Li, G., Zhao, F.J., McGrath, S.P. Villada, A., Sommella, A., Mangala, P., De Silva, C.S., Brammer, H., Dasgupta, T. and Islam, M.R. (2013). Variation in rice cadmium related to human exposure. Environmental Science Technolology, 47, 5613−5618.
  10. Zhalnina K., deQuadros P.D., Gano K.A., Davis-Richardson A., Fagen J. R., Brown C.T., Giongo A., Drew J.C., Sayavedra-Soto L.A., Arp D.J., Camargo F.A.O., Daroub S.H., Clark I.M., McGrath S.P., Hirsch P.R. and Triplett E.W. (2013) Ca. Nitrososphaera  and Bradyrhizobium are inversely correlated and related to agricultural practices in long-term field experiments. Frontiers in Microbiology, 01May2013. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2013.00104
  11. Lofts S., Criel P., Janssen C., Lock K., McGrath S.P., Oorts K., Rooney C.P., Smolders E., Spurgeon DJ., Svendsen C., van Eeckhout H. and Zhao F.J. (2013) Modelling the effects of copper on soil organisms and processes using the free ion approach: towards a multi-species toxicity model. Environmental Pollution, 178, 244-253.
  12. Lombi, E., Nowack, B., Baun, A. and McGrath, S.P. (2012) Evidence for effects of manufactured nanomaterials on crops is inconclusive. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109,  E3336-E3336.   DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1214934109 
  13. Freeman J.L., Marcus M.A., Fakra S.C., Devonshire J., McGrath S.P., Quinn C.F. and Pilon-Smits E.A.H. (2012) Selenium hyperaccumulator plants Stanleya pinnata and Astragalus bisulcatus are colonized by se-resistant, Se-excluding wasp and beetle seed herbivores. PLoS ONE 7: e50516. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050516
  14. McGrath S.P., Chambers B.J., Taylor M.J. and Carlton-Smith C.H. (2012) Biofortification of zinc in wheat grain by the application of sewage sludge. Plant and Soil, 361, 97–108. DOI 10.1007/s11104-012-1381-6
  15. Xue Y.F., Yue S.C., Zhang Y.Q., Cui Z.L., Chen X.P., Yang F.C., Cakmak I., McGrath S.P., Zhang F.S. and Zou C.Q. (2012) Grain and shoot zinc accumulation in winter wheat affected by nitrogen management. Plant Soil, 361, 153–163. DOI 10.1007/s11104-012-1510-2
  16. Gooding M.J., Fan M.S., McGrath S.P., Shewry P.R. and Zhao F.J. (2012) Contrasting effects of dwarfing alleles and nitrogen availability on mineral concentrations in wheat grain. Plant and Soil,  360, 93–107. DOI 10.1007/s11104-012-1203-x.
  17. Zhang, X., Uroic, M.K., Xie, W.Y., Zhu, Y.G., Chen, B.D., McGrath, S.P., Feldmann, J. and Zhao, F.J. (2012) Phytochelatins play a key role in arsenic accumulation and tolerance in the aquatic macrophyte Wolffia globosa. Environmental Pollution 165, 18-24.
  1. van Gestel C.A.M., McGrath S.P., Smolders E., Ortiz M.D., Borgman E., Verweij R.A., Buekers J. and Oorts K. (2012) Effect of long-term equilibration on the toxicity of molybdenum to soil organisms. Environmental Pollution, 162, 1-7. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2011.10.013
  2. Liu W.J., Schat H., Bliek M., Chen Y., McGrath S.P., George G., Salt D.E., Zhao F.J. (2012) Knocking out ACR2 does not affect arsenic redox status in Arabidopsis thaliana: implications for as detoxification and accumulation in plants. PLoS One, 7, e42408. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0042408
  3. Donner, E., Ryan, C.G, Howard, D.L., Zarcinas, B., Scheckel, K., McGrath, S.P., de Jonge, M.D., Paterson, D., Naidu, R. and Lombi, E. (2012) A multi-technique investigation of copper and zinc distribution, speciation and potential bioavailability in biosolids. Environmental Pollution 166, 57-64. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2012.02.012
  4. Guntzer F., Keller C., Poulton P.R., McGrath S.P. and Meunier J.D. (2012) Long-term removal of wheat straw decreases soil amorphous silica at Broadbalk, Rothamsted. Plant and Soil 352, 173–184. DOI 10.1007/s11104-011-0987-4
  5. Moore K.L., Zhao F.J., Gritsch C., Tosi P., Hawkesford M.J., McGrath S.P., Shewry P.R. and Grovenor  C.R.M. (2012) Localisation of iron in wheat grain using high resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry. Journal of Cereal Science, 55, 183–187. doi:10.1016/j.jcs.2011.11.005
  6. Zhao F.J., Stroud J.L, Khan M. A., McGrath S.P. (2012) Arsenic translocation in rice investigated using radioactive 73As tracer. Plant and Soil, 350, 413–420. DOI 10.1007/s11104-011-0926-4
  7. Stroud J.L., McGrath S.P. and Zhao F.J. (2012) Selenium speciation in soil extracts using LC-ICP-MS International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, 92, 2012, 222-236. DOI:10.1080/03067310903111661
  8. Norton G.J., Pinson S., Alexander J., Mckay S., Hansen H., Duan G., Islam M.R., Islam S., Stroud J.L., Zhao F.J., McGrath S.P., Zhu Y.G., Lahner B., Yakubova E., Guerinot M.L.,Tarpley L.,EizengaG.C.,Salt D.E., Meharg A.A. and Price A.H.(2012) Variation in grain arsenic assessed in a diverse panel of rice (Oryza sativa) grown in multiple sites. New Phytologist, 193, 650–664. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2011.03983.x
  9. Lomax C., Liu W.J., Wu L., Xue K., Xiong J., Zhou J., McGrath S.P., Meharg A.A., Miller A.J. and Zhao F.J. (2012) Methylated arsenic species in plants originate from soil microorganisms. New Phytologist, 193, 665–672. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2011.03956.x
  10. Ye W.L., Khan M. A., McGrath S.P.and Zhao F.J. (2011) Phytoremediation of arsenic contaminated paddy soils with Pteris vittata markedly reduces arsenic uptake by rice. Environmental Pollution, 159, 3739-3743. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2011.07.024
  11. Wu Z.C., Ren H., McGrath S.P., Wu P., and Zhao F.J. (2011) Investigating the contribution of the phosphate transport pathway to arsenic accumulation in rice. Plant Physiology, 157, 498–508.
  12. Moore K.L., Schröder M., Wu Z.C., Martin B.G.H., Hawes C.R., McGrath S.P., Hawkesford M.J., Ma J.F., Zhao F.J., Grovenor C.R.M. (2011) High resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry reveals the contrasting subcellular distribution of arsenic and silicon in rice roots. Plant Physiology, 156, 913–924. doi: 10.1104/pp.111.173088
    1. Wang P., Kopittke P.M., De Schamphelaere K.A.C., Zhao F.J., Zhou D.M., Lock K., Ma Y.B., Peijnenburg W.J.G.M. and Steve P. McGrath (2011). Evaluation of an electrostatic toxicity model for predicting Ni2+ toxicity to barley root elongation in hydroponic cultures and in soils. New Phytologist, 192, 414–427. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2011.03806.x
    2. Macdonald C.A., Clark I.M., Hirsch P.R., Zhao F.J., and McGrath S.P. (2011) Development of a real-time PCR assay for detection and quantification of Rhizobium leguminosarum bacteria and discrimination between different biovars in zinc-contaminated soil. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 77, 4626–4633. doi:10.1128/AEM.02232-10
    3. Stroud J.L., Khan M.A., Norton G., Islam M.R., Dasgupta T., Zhu Y.G., Price A.H., Meharg A.A., McGrath S.P., Zhao F.J. (2011) Assessing the labile arsenic pool in contaminated paddy soils by isotopic dilution techniques and simple extractions. Environmental Science and Technology, 45, 4262-4269. 10.1021/es104080s
    4. Macdonald C. A., Clark I.M., Zhao F.J., Hirsch P.R., Singh B.K., McGrath S.P. (2011) Long-term impacts of zinc and copper enriched sewage sludge additions on bacterial, archaeal and fungal communities in arable and grassland soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 43, 932-941. doi:10.1016/j.soilbio.2011.01.004
    5. Hart D.J., Fairweather-Tait S.J., Broadley M.R., Dickinson S.J., Foot I., Knott P., McGrath S.P., Mowat H., Norman K., Scott P.R., Stroud J.L., Tucker M., White P.J., Zhao F.J., Hurst R. (2011) Selenium concentration and speciation in biofortified flour and bread: Retention of selenium during grain biofortification, processing and production of Se-enriched food. Food Chemistry, 126, 1771–1778. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.12.079
    6. Stroud J.L., Norton G.J., Islam M.R., Dasgupta T., White R.P. Price A.H., Meharg A.A., McGrath S.P., Zhao F.J. (2011) The dynamics of arsenic in four paddy fields in the Bengal delta. Environmental Pollution 159: 947-953. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2010.12.016
    7. Li H.F., Lombi E., Stroud J.L. McGrath S.P. and Zhao F.J. (2010) Selenium speciation in soil and rice: Influence of water management and Se fertilization. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 58, 11837–11843. DOI:10.1021/jf1026185
    8. Norton G.J., Dasgupta T., Islam M.R., Islam S., Zhao F.J., Stroud J.L., McGrath S.P., Feldmann J., Price A.H. and Meharg A.A. (2010) Arsenic influence on genetic  variation in trace-element nutrient content in Bengal Delta grown rice. Environmental Science and Technology, 44, 8284–8288. 10.1021/es101487x
    9. Ye W.L., Wood B.A., Stroud J.L., Andralojc P.J., Raab A., McGrath S.P., Feldmann J. and Zhao F.J. (2010) Arsenic speciation in phloem and xylem exudates of castor bean. Plant Physiology, 154, 1505–1513. doi/10.1104/pp.110.163261.
    10. Khan M. A., Stroud J.L., Zhu Y.G., McGrath S.P. and Zhao F.J. 2010. Arsenic bioavailability to rice is elevated in Bangladeshi paddy soils. Environmental Science and Technology, 44, 8515–8521. 10.1021/es101952f
    11. McGrath S.P., Micó C., Curdy R., and Zhao F.J. (2010) Predicting molybdenum toxicity to higher plants: Influence of soil properties. Environmental Pollution, 158, 3095-3102.  doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2010.06.027
    12. McGrath S.P., Micó C., Zhao F.J., Stroud J.L., Zhang H., and Fozard S. (2010) Predicting molybdenum toxicity to higher plants: Estimation of toxicity threshold values. Environmental Pollution, 158, 3085-3094.doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2010.06.030
    13. Zhao F.J., Stroud J.L., Eagling T., Dunham S.J., McGrath S.P., Shewry P.R. (2010) The accumulation, distribution and speciation of arsenic in wheat grain. Environmental Science and Technology, 44, 5464-5468. doi:10.1021/es100765g
    14. Freeman J.L., Tamaoki M., Stushnoff C., Quinn C.F., Cappa J.J., Devonshire J., Fakra S.C., Marcus M.A., McGrath S.P., Van Hoewyk D., and Pilon-Smits E.A.H. (2010) Molecular mechanisms of selenium tolerance and hyperaccumulation in Stanleya pinnata. Plant Physiology, 153, 1630–1652.
    15. Stroud  J. L., Li  H. F., Lopez-Bellido  F. J., Broadley  M. R., Foot  I., Fairweather-Tait  S. J., Hart  D. J., Hurst  R., Knott  P., Mowat  H., Norman K., Scott  P., Tucker  M., White P. J., McGrath S. P. and Zhao F.J. (2010) Impact of sulphur fertilisation on crop response to selenium fertilisation.  Plant and Soil, 332, 31-40. DOI 10.1007/s11104-009-0230-8
    16. Stroud J. L., Broadley M. R., Foot  I. Fairweather-Tait S. J., Hart D. J., Hurst  R., Knott  P., Mowat  H., Norman  K., Scott  P., Tucker  M., White P. J., McGrath S. P., and Zhao F. J. (2010)  Soil factors affecting selenium concentration in wheat grain and the fate and speciation of Se fertilisers applied to soil. Plant and Soil, 332, 19-30. DOI 10.1007/s11104-009-0229-1
    17. Broadley  M.R., Alcock J., Alford J., Cartwright  P., Foot I., Fairweather-Tait S.J., Hart  D.J., Hurst R., Knott P., McGrath S.P., Meacham  M.C., Norman  K., Mowat H., Scott P., Stroud  J.L., Tovey  M., Tucker M., White  P.J., Young  S.D. and Zhao F.J. (2010) Selenium biofortification of high-yielding winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by liquid or granular Se fertilisation. Plant and Soil, 332, 5-18. DOI 10.1007/s11104-009-0234-4
    18. Macdonald C., Yang X.Y, Clark I., Zhao F.J., Hirsch P.R., McGrath S.P. (2010) Relative impact of soil, metal source and metal concentration on bacterial community structure and community tolerance. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 42, 1408-1417. doi:10.1016/j.soilbio.2010.05.002
    19. Stroud J.L., Zhao F.J., Buchner P., Shinmachi F., McGrath S.P., Abecassis J., Hawkesford M.J., and Shewry P.R. (2010). Impacts of sulphur nutrition on selenium and molybdenum concentrations in wheat grain. Journal of Cereal Science, 52, 111-113. doi:10.1016/j.jcs.2010.03.011
    20. Shinmachi F., Buchner P., Stroud J.L. Parmar S., Zhao F.J., McGrath S.P., and Hawkesford M.J. (2010) Influence of sulfur deficiency on the expression of specific sulfate transporters and the distribution of sulfur, selenium, and molybdenum in wheat. Plant Physiology, 153, 327–336.
    21. Liu W.J., Wood B. A., Raab A., McGrath S.P., Zhao F.J., Feldmann J. (2010) Complexation of arsenite with phytochelatins reduces arsenite efflux and translocation from roots to shoots in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Physiology, 152, 2211–2221. doi/10.1104/pp.109.150862
    22. Zhao F.J., Ago Y., Mitani N., Li R.Y., Su Y.H., Yamaji N., McGrath S. P. and Ma J. F. (2010) The role of the rice aquaporin Lsi1 in arsenite efflux from roots. New Phytologist, 186: 392–399. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2010.03192.x
    23. Su Y.H., McGrath S.P. and Zhao F.J. (2010) Rice is more efficient in arsenite uptake and translocation than wheat and barley. Plant and Soil, 328, 27–34. doi: 10.1007/s11104-009-0074-2.
    24. Norton G. J., Islam M. R., Duan G., Lei M., Zhu Y.G., Deacon C.M., Moran A.C., Islam S., Zhao F.J., Stroud J.L., McGrath S.P., Feldmann J., Price A.H. and Meharg A.A. (2010) Arsenic shoot - grain relationships in field grown rice cultivars. Environmental Science and Technology, 44, 1471–1477. doi: 10.1021/es902992d
    25. Zhao F.J. McGrath S.P. and Meharg A.A. (2010) Arsenic as a food chain contaminant: Mechanisms of plant uptake and metabolism and mitigation strategies. Annual Review of Plant Biology, 61:535–59. doi:10.1146/annurev-arplant-042809-112152
    26. Moore K.L., Schröder M., Lombi E., Zhao F.J., McGrath S.P., Hawkesford M.J., Shewry P.R., Grovenor C.R.M. (2010)  NanoSIMS analysis of arsenic and selenium in cereal grain. New Phytologist, 185: 434–445. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2009.03071.x
    27. Norton G.J.,  Duan G., Dasgupta T., Islam M.R., Ming L., Zhu Y.G., Deacon, C.M. Moran, A.C., Ilsam, S., Zhao, F.J., Stroud, J.L., McGrath, S.P., Feldmann, J., Price, A.H. and Meharg, A.A.  (2009) Environmental and genetic control of arsenic accumulation and speciation in rice grain: comparing a range of common cultivars grown in contaminated sites across Bangladesh, China, and India. Environmental Science and Technology, 43, 8381–8386. doi: 10.1021/es901844q
    28. Giller K. E., Witter E. and McGrath S.P. (2009) Heavy metals and soil microbes. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 41, 2031–2037. doi:10.1016/j.soilbio.2009.04.026
    29. Li R.Y., Ago K., Liu W.J., Mitani N., Feldmann J., McGrath S.P., Ma J.F. and Zhao F.J. (2009) The rice aquaporin Lsi1 mediates uptake of methylated arsenic species. Plant Physiology, 150, 2071-2080. doi:10.1104/pp.109.140350
    30. Norton, G. J., M. Islam, M.R., Deacon, C.M., Zhao, F.J., Stroud, J.L., McGrath, S.P., Islam, S., Jahiruddin, M., Feldmann, J., Price, A.H. and Meharg, A.A. (2009) Identification of low inorganic and total grain arsenic rice cultivars from Bangladesh. Environmental Science and Technology, 43, 6070–6075. doi/10.1021/es901121j
    31. Smolders, E., Oorts, K., Van Sprang, P., Schoeters, I., Janssen, C.R., McGrath, S.P., McLaughlin, M.J. (2009) The toxicity of trace metals in soil as affected by soil type and ageing after contamination: using calibrated bioavailability models to set ecological soil standards. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 28, 1633–1642. doi:10.1897/08-592.1
    32. Zhao F.J. and McGrath S.P. (2009) Biofortification and phytoremediation. Current Opinion in Plant Biology, 12, 373–380. doi: 10.1016/j.pbi.2009.04.005.
    33. Logoteta B., Xu X.Y., Macnair M.R., McGrath S.P. and Zhao F.J. (2009) Arsenite efflux is not enhanced in the arsenate-tolerant phenotype of Holcus lanatus. New Phytologist, 183, 340–348. doi 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2009.02841.x
    34. Zhao F. J., Su Y. H., Dunham S. J., Rakszegi M., Bedo Z., McGrath S. P., and Shewry P. R. (2009) Variation in mineral micronutrient concentrations in grain of wheat lines of diverse origin. Journal of Cereal Science, 49, 290–295. doi:10.1016/j.jcs.2008.11.007
    35. Li R.Y., Stroud J.L., Ma J.F., McGrath S.P. and Zhao F.J. (2009) Mitigation of arsenic accumulation in rice with water management and silicon fertilization. Environmental Science and Technology, 43, 3778–3783. doi/10.1021/es803643v.
    36. Zhao, F.J.,  Ma, J.F., Meharg, A.A. and McGrath, S.P. (2009)Arsenic uptake and metabolism in plants.New Phytologist, 181,777-794. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2008.02716.x
    37. Xie, H.L., Jiang, R.F., Zhang, F.S., McGrath, S.P., and Zhao, F.J. (2009) Effect of nitrogen form on the rhizosphere dynamics and uptake of cadmium and zinc by the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens . Plant and Soil, 318, 205–215. doi:10.1007/s11104-008-9830-y
    38. Shelmerdine P.A., Black C.R., McGrath S.P., and Young S.D. (2009) Modelling phytoremediation by the hyperaccumulating fern, Pteris vittata, of soils historically contaminated with arsenic. Environmental Pollution 157, 1589–1596. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2008.12.029    
    39. Li H.F., Gray C., Mic C., Zhao F.J., and McGrath S.P. (2009) Phytotoxicity and bioavailability of cobalt to plants in a range of soils. Chemosphere, 75, 979-986.   doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2008.12.068 
    40. Su Y. H., McGrath S. P., Zhu Y. G. and Zhao F. J. (2008) Highly efficient xylem transport of arsenite in the arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata. New Phytologist 180, 434–441.
    41. Fan M.S., Zhao F.J., Fairweather-Tait S.J., Poulton P.R., Dunham S.J. and McGrath S.P. (2008) Evidence of decreasing mineral density in wheat grain over the last 160 years. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, 22, 315–324. doi:10.1016/j.jtemb.2008.07.002   
    42. Redshaw, C.H. Cooke, M.P. Talbot, H.M., McGrath S.P., Rowland S.J. (2008)  Low biodegradability of fluoxetine HCl, diazepam and their human metabolites in sewage sludge-amended soil. Journal of Soils and Sediments, 8, 217-230.
    43. Micó C., Li H., Zhao F.J. and McGrath S.P. (2008) Use of Co speciation and soil properties to explain variation in Co toxicity to root growth of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in different soils. Environmental Pollution, 156, 883–890. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2008.05.017  
    44. Chadi H. S., Courchesne F., Hendershot W.H., McGrath S.P., Chaudri A.M., Sappin-Didier V. and Sauvé S. (2008). Speciation of zinc in contaminated soils.  Environmental Pollution, 155, 208-216. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2008.05.017  
    45. Ma, J.F., Yamaji N., Mitani N., Xu X.Y., Su Y.H., McGrath S.P. and Zhao F.J. (2008) Transporters of arsenite in rice and their role in arsenic accumulation in rice grain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105, 9931–9935.doi: 10.1073/pnas.0802361105
    46. Xu, X., McGrath, S.P., Meharg, A., and Zhao, F.J. (2008) Growing rice aerobically markedly decreases arsenic accumulation. Environmental Science and Technology, 42, 5574–5579. doi: 10.1021/es800324u
    47. Chaudri A.M., McGrath S.P., Gibbs P., Chambers B.C., Carlton-Smith C., Bacon J., Campbell C. and Aitken A. (2008) Population size of indigenous Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar trifolii in long-term field experiments with sewage sludge cake, metal-amended liquid sludge or metal salts: Effects of zinc, copper and cadmium. Soil Biology and Biochemistry.  40, 1670–1680. doi:10.1016/j.soilbio.2008.01.026    
    48. Lehmann J., Solomon D., Zhao F.J. and McGrath S.P. (2008) Atmospheric SO2 Emissions since the late 1800s change organic sulfur forms in humic substance extracts of soils. Environmental Science and Technology, 42, 3550–3555. doi: 10.1021/es702315g
    49. Li H.F., McGrath S.P. and Zhao F.J. (2008) Selenium uptake, translocation and speciation in wheat supplied with selenate or selenite. New Phytologist, 178, 92-102.  doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.2007.02343.x
    50. Xing J. P., Jiang R. F., Ueno D., Ma J. F., Schat H., McGrath S. P. and Zhao F. J.  (2008) Variation in the root-to-shoot translocation of cadmium and zinc among different accessions of the hyperaccumulators Thlaspi caerulescens and Thlaspi praecox. New Phytologist, 178, 315-325.  doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.2008.02376.x
    51. Liu M.Q., Yanai J., Jiang R.F., Zhang F., McGrath S.P. and Zhao F.J. (2008) Does cadmium play a physiological role in the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescensChemosphere 71, 1276–1283. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2007.11.063 
    52. Fan M. S., Zhao F.J., Poulton P.R., McGrath S.P. (2008) Historical changes in the concentrations of selenium in soil and wheat grain from the Broadbalk experiment over the last 160 years. Science of the Total Environment, 389, 532–538. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2007.08.024 
    53. Xu X. Y., McGrath S. P. and Zhao F. J. (2007) Rapid reduction of arsenate in the medium mediated by plant roots. New Phytologist, 176, 590–599.  doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.2007.02195.x
    54. Maxted A.P., Black C.R., West H.M., Crout N.M.J., McGrath S.P and, Young S.D. (2007) Phytoextraction of cadmium and zinc from arable soils amended with sewage sludge using Thlaspi caerulescens: Development of a predictive model. Environmental Pollution, 150, 363-372. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2007.01.021    
    55. Plaza S., Tearall K.L., Zhao F.J., Buchner P., McGrath S.P. and Hawkesford M.J. (2007) Expression and functional analysis of metal transporter genes in two contrasting ecotypes of the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens. Journal of Experimental Botany, 58, 1717–1728. doi:10.1093/jxb/erm025
    56. Zhao F.J., McGrath S.P. and Merrington G. (2007) Estimates of ambient background concentrations of trace metals in soils for risk assessment. Environmental Pollution 148, 221-229. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2006.10.041    
    57. Maxted A.P., Black C.R., West H.M., Crout N.M.J., McGrath S.P. and Young S.D. (2007) Phytoextraction of cadmium and zinc by Salix from soil historically amended with sewage sludge. Plant and Soil 290, 157–172. doi:10.1007/s11104-006-9149-5
    58. Zhao, F.J., Lopez-Bellido, F.J., Gray C.W., Whalley, W. R., Clark, L.J. and McGrath, S.P. (2007) Effects of soil compaction and irrigation on the concentrations of selenium and arsenic in wheat grains. Science of the Total Environment 372, 433–439. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2006.09.028   
    59. Chaudri A.M., McGrath S.P., Gibbs P.A., Chambers B.J., Carlton-Smith C.H., Godley A., Bacon J.R., Campbell C.D. and Aitken M.N. (2007) Cadmium availability to wheat grain in soils treated with sewage sludge or metal salts. Chemosphere 66, 1415–1423. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.09.068 
    60. Rooney, C.P. Zhao, F.J. and McGrath, S.P. (2007) Phytotoxicity of nickel in a range of European soils: influence of soil properties, Ni solubility and speciation. Environmental Pollution, 145, 596-605. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2006.04.008    
    61. Freeman J.L., Zhang L. H., Marcus M.A., Fakra S., McGrath S.P., Pilon-Smits  E.A.H. (2006) Spatial imaging, speciation and quantification of selenium in the hyperaccumulator plants Astragalus bisulcatus and Stanleya pinnata. Plant Physiology, 142, 124–134. doi:10.1104/pp.106.081158
    62. Thakali S., Allen H. E., Di Toro D.M., Ponizovsky A.A., Rooney C.P., Zhao F.J. and McGrath S. P. (2006) A Terrestrial Biotic Ligand Model. 1. Development and application to Cu and Ni toxicities to barley root elongation in soils. Environmental Science and Technology, 40, 7085-7093. doi: 10.1021/es061171s
    63. Thakali S., Allen H. E., Di Toro D.M., Ponizovsky A.A., Rooney C.P., Zhao F.J., McGrath S. P., Criel P., Van Eckout H., Janssen C., Oorts K., and Smolders E. (2006) Terrestrial Biotic Ligand Model. 2. Application to Ni and Cu toxicities to plants, invertebrates, and microbes in soil. Environmental Science and Technology, 40, 7094-7100. doi: 10.1021/es061173c
    64. Zhao F. J., Jiang R. F., Dunham S. J. and McGrath S. P. (2006) Cadmium uptake, translocation and tolerance in the hyperaccumulator Arabidopsis halleri. New Phytologist, 172, 646–654. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.2006.01867.x
    65. Hernández-Allica J., Garbisu C., Becerril J. M., Barrutia O., García-Plazaola J. I., Zhao F. J.,  and S. P. McGrath, S.P. (2006) Synthesis of low molecular weight thiols in response to Cd exposure in Thlaspi caerulescens. Plant, Cell and Environment, 29, 1422-1429. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2006.01525.x
    66. Song, J., Zhao, F.J., McGrath, S.P. and Luo Y.M. (2006) Influence of soil properties and ageing on arsenic phytotoxicity.  Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 25,1663-1670. doi: 10.1897/05-480R2
      1.  M.R., White P.J., Bryson R.J., Meacham M.C., Bowen H.C., Johnson S.E., Hawkesford M.J., McGrath S.P., Zhao F.J., Breward N., Harriman M. and Tucker M. (2006) Biofortification of UK food crops with selenium. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 65, 169-181. doi: 10.1079/PNS2006490
      2. Gibbs, P.A., Chambers, B.J., Chaudri, A.M., McGrath, S.P., Carlton-Smith, C.H. (2006) Initial results from long-term field studies at three sites on the effects of heavy metal-amended liquid sludges on soil microbial activity.   Soil Use and Management, 22,180-187.  doi:10.1111/j.1475-2743.2006.00009.x
      3. Gray, C.W., Dunham, S.J., Dennis, P.G., Zhao, F.J., and McGrath, S.P. (2006). Field evaluation of in situ remediation of a heavy metal contaminated soil using lime and red-mud. Environmental Pollution, 142,530-539. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2005.10.017    
      4. Zhao F.J., Lehmann J., Solomon D., Fox M.A. and McGrath S.P. (2006) Sulphur speciation and turnover in soils: evidence from sulphur K-edge XANES spectroscopy and isotope dilution studies. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 38, 1000-1007. doi:10.1016/j.soilbio.2008.01.026    

100.Zhao F.J., Fortune S., Barbosa V.L., McGrath S.P., Stobart R., Bilsborrow P.E., Booth E.J., Brown A., Robson P. (2006) Effects of sulphur on yield and malting quality of barley. Journal of Cereal Science, 43, 369-377. doi:10.1016/j.jcs.2005.12.003  

101.McGrath, S.P., Lombi, E., Gray, C.W., Caille, N., Dunham, S.J and Zhao, F.J. (2006). Field evaluation of Cd and Zn phytoextraction by the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens and Arabidopsis halleri. Environmental Pollution, 141, 115-125. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2005.08.022    

102.Gibbs P. A., Chambers B. J., Chaudri A. M., McGrath S. P., Carlton-Smith C. H., Bacon, J. R., Campbell C. D. and Aitken M. N. (2006) Initial results from a long-term, multi-site field study of the effects on soil fertility and microbial activity of sludge cakes containing heavy metals. Soil Use and Management, 22, 11-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1475-2743.2006.00003.x

103.Crout N.M.J., Tye A.M., Zhang H., McGrath S.P., and Young S.D.  (2006) Kinetics of metal fixation in soils: measurement and modelling by isotopic dilution. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 25, 659-663. doi: 10.1897/05-069R

104.Rooney C.P., Zhao F.J. and McGrath   S.P. (2006) Soil factors controlling the expression of copper toxicity to plants in a wide range of European soils. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 25, 726-732. doi: 10.1897/04-602R

105.Zhao F.J., Rooney C. P., Zhang H. and McGrath S.P. (2006) Comparison of soil solution speciation and DGT measurement as an indicator of copper bioavailability to plants. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 25, 733-742. doi: 10.1897/04-603R

106.Yanai J., Zhao F.J., McGrath S.P., and Kosaki T. (2006) Effect of soil characteristics on Cd uptake by the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens. Environmental Pollution,139, 167-175. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2005.03.013  

107.Johnson D.L., Anderson D.R. and McGrath S.P. (2005) Soil microbial response during the phytoremediation of a PAH contaminated soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 37, 2334-2336. doi:10.1016/j.soilbio.2008.01.026    

108.Ueno D., Ma J.F., Iwashita, T., Zhao F.J., and McGrath, S.P. (2005) Identification of the form of Cd in the leaves of a superior Cd-accumulating ecotype of Thlaspi caerulescens using 113Cd-NMR. Planta,  221, 928-936. doi:10.1007/s00425-005-1491-y

109.Jiang R.F., Ma D.Y., Zhao F.J. and McGrath S.P.  (2005) Cadmium hyperaccumulation protects Thlaspi caerulescens from leaf feeding damage by thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis). New Phytologist, 167,805-814. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2005.01452.x

110.Brown S., Christensen B., Lombi E., McLaughlin M., McGrath S., Colpaert J., and Vangronsveld J. (2005) An inter-laboratory study to test the ability of amendments to reduce the availability of Cd, Pb, and Zn in situ.  Environmental Pollution, 138, 34-45. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2005.03.013  

111.Tandy S., Barbosa V.L., Tye A., Preston S., Paton G. I.,  Zhang, H. and McGrath S.P. (2005) Comparison of different microbial bioassays to assess metal contaminated soils. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 24, 530-536. doi: 10.1897/04-197R.

112.Ma J.F., Ueno D., Zhao F. J., and McGrath S.P. (2005) Subcellular localization of Cd and Zn in the leaves of a Cd-hyperaccumulating ecotype of Thlaspi caerulescens. Planta, 220, 731-736. doi:10.1007/s11104-004-0229-0

113.Hough R. L., Tye A. M., Crout N. M. J., McGrath S.P., Zhang H. and Young S. D. (2005) Evaluating a 'Free Ion Activity Model' applied to metal uptake by Lolium perenne L. grown in contaminated soils. Plant and Soil, 270, 1-12. doi:10.1007/s11104-004-1658-5

114.Hu Z.Y., Zhao F. J. and McGrath S. P. (2005) Sulphur fractionation in calcareous soils and bioavailability to plants. Plant and Soil, 268, 103-109. doi: 10.1007/s11104-004-0229-0

115.Caille N., Zhao F. J. and McGrath S. P. (2005) Comparison of root absorption, translocation and tolerance of arsenic in the hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata and the nonhyperaccumulator Pteris tremula. New Phytologist, 165, 755-761. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.2004.01239.x

116.Davis M.R.H., Zhao F.J., and McGrath S.P. (2004) Pollution-induced community tolerance of soil microbes in response to a zinc gradient. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 23, 2665-2672. doi: 10.1897/03-645

117.Zhang H., Lombi E., Smolders E., McGrath S.P. (2004) Kinetics of Zn release in soils and prediction of Zn concentration in plants using diffusive gradients in thin films. Environmental Science and Technology 38, 3608-3613. doi: 10.1021/es0352597

118.Tye A.M., Young S.D., Crout N.M.J., Zhang H., Preston S., Zhao, F.J, and McGrath S.P. (2004) Speciation and solubility of Cu, Ni and Pb in contaminated soils. European Journal of Soil Science, 55, 579-590. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2389.2004.00627.x

119.Caille N., Swanwick S., Zhao F. J. and McGrath S. P. (2004) Arsenic hyperaccumulation by Pteris vittata from arsenic contaminated soils and the effect of liming and phosphate fertilisation. Environmental Pollution, 132, 113-120. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2004.03.018    

120.Zhao F. J., Adams M. L., Dumont C., McGrath S. P., Chaudri A.M., Nicholson F. A., Chambers B. J., and Sinclair A. H. (2004) Factors affecting the concentrations of lead in British wheat and barley grain. Environmental Pollution 131, 461-468. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2004.02.011 

121.Lombi, E., Hamon, R.E., Wieshammer, G., McLaughlin, M.J. and McGrath, S.P. (2004) Assessment of the use of industrial by-products to remediate a copper/arsenic contaminated soil. Journal of Environmental Quality, 33, 902-910.

122.Zha H.G., Jiang R.F., Zhao F.J., Vooijs R., Schat H., Barker J.H.A. and McGrath S.P. (2004) Co-segregation analysis of cadmium and zinc accumulation in Thlaspi caerulescens interecotypic crosses. New Phytologist, 163, 299-312. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.2004.01113.x

123.Fox, M.A., Zhao, F.J. and McGrath S.P. (2004) A new method for the determination of the 34S/32S ratio of water-soluble sulphur in soil. International Journal of Environmental and Analytical Chemistry, 84, 323-329. doi: 10.1080/03067310410001679994

124.Adams M.L., Zhao F.J., McGrath S.P., Nicholson F.A., and Chambers B.J. (2004) Predicting cadmium concentrations in wheat and barley grain using soil properties. Journal of Environmental Quality, 33, 532-541.

125.Song, J., Zhao, F.J., Luo, Y.M., McGrath, S.P. and Zhang, H. (2004) Copper uptake by Elsholtzia splendens and Silene vulgaris and assessment of copper phytoavailability in contaminated soils. Environmental Pollution, 128, 307-315. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2003.09.019  

126.Johnson D.L., Maguire K.L., Anderson, D.R. and McGrath, S.P. (2004) Enhanced dissipation of chrysene in planted soil: the impact of a rhizobial inoculum. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 36, 33-38. doi:10.1016/j.soilbio.2008.01.026    

127.Carr H.P., Lombi E., Küpper H., McGrath S.P. and Wong M.H. (2003) Accumulation and distribution of aluminium and other elements in tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves. Agronomie, 23, 705-710. doi: 10.1051/agro:2003045

128.Zhao, F.J. Lombi, E. and McGrath, S.P. (2003) Assessing the potential for zinc and cadmium phytoremediation with the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescensPlant and Soil, 249, 37-43. doi:10.1023/A:1022530217289

129.Smolders, E., McGrath, S.P., Lombi, E., Karman, C.C., Bernhard, R., Cools, D., Van den Brande, K., van Os, B. and Walrave, N. (2003) Comparison of toxicity of zinc for soil microbial processes between laboratory contaminated and polluted field soils. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 22, 2592-2598. doi: 10.1897/02-503

130.Lombi E., Hamon R.E., McGrath S.P., and McLaughlin M. J. (2003) Lability of Cd, Cu, and Zn in polluted soils treated with lime, beringite, and red mud and identification of a non-labile colloidal fraction of metals using isotopic techniques. Environmental Science and Technology, 37, 979-984. doi:10.1021/es026083w

131.McGrath, S.P. and Zhao, F.J. (2003) Phytoextraction of metals and metalloids from contaminated soils. Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 14, 277-282. doi:10.1016/S0958-1669(03)00060-0  

132.Zhao F. J., Wang J. R., Barker J. H. A., Schat H., Bleeker P. M. and McGrath S. P. (2003) The role of phytochelatins in arsenic tolerance in the hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata. New Phytologist, 159, 403-410. doi:10.1046/j.1469-8137.2003.00784.x

133.Adams M. L., Chaudri, A.M., Rousseau, I, McGrath, S.P. (2003) A practical evaluation of microwave and conventional wet digestion techniques for the determination of Cd, Cu and Zn in wheat grain. International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, 83, 307-314. doi: 10.1080/0306731031000083988

134.Robinson B. H., Lombi E., Zhao F. J. and McGrath S. P. (2003) Uptake and distribution of nickel and other metals in the hyperaccumulator Berkheya coddii. New Phytologist, 158, 279-285. doi:10.1046/j.1469-8137.2003.00743.x

135.Castro I. V., Ferreira E. M. and McGrath S. P. (2003) Survival and plasmid stability of rhizobia introduced into a contaminated soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 35, 49-54. doi:10.1016/j.soilbio.2008.01.026    

136.Tye A.M., Young S.D., Crout N.M.J., Zhang H., Preston S., Barbosa-Jefferson V.L., Davison W., McGrath S.P., Paton G.I., Kilham K. and Resende L. (2003) Predicting the activity of Cd2+ and Zn2+ in soil pore water from the radio-labile metal fraction. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 67, 375-385. doi:10.1016/S0016-7037(02)01138-9    

137.Zhao, F.J., Knights, J.S., Hu, Z.Y. and McGrath, S.P. (2003) Stable sulfur isotope ratio indicates long-term changes in sulfur deposition in the Broadbalk experiment since 1845. Journal of Environmental Quality, 32, 33-39.

138.Gove, B., Hutchinson, J.J., Young, S.D. and S.P. McGrath. (2002). Uptake of metals by plants sharing a rhizosphere with the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescensInternational Journal of Phytoremediation, 4, 267-281. doi: 10.1080/15226510208500087

139.Wang J., Zhao F.J., Meharg A.A., Raab A., Feldmann J. and McGrath S.P. (2002) Mechanisms of arsenic hyperaccumulation in Pteris vittata: Uptake kinetics, interactions with phosphate, and arsenic speciation. Plant Physiology, 130, 1552-1561. doi:10.1104/pp.008185


140.Georgieva, S. S., McGrath, S. P., Hooper, D. J. and Chambers, B. S. (2002). Nematode communities under stress: the long-term effects of heavy metals in soil treated with sewage sludge.  Applied Soil Ecology, 20, 27-42. doi:10.1016/S0929-1393(02)00005-7    

141.Keller, C., McGrath, S. P. and Dunham S. J. (2002) Trace metal leaching through a soil-grassland system after sewage sludge application.  Journal of Environmental Quality, 31, 1550-1560.

142.Zhao, F.J. Hamon, R.E. Lombi, E. McLaughlin, M.J. and McGrath, S.P. (2002) Characteristics of cadmium uptake in two contrasting ecotypes of the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescensJournal of Experimental Botany, 53, 535-543.

143.Adams M.L., Lombi E., Zhao F.J. and McGrath S.P. (2002) Evidence of low selenium concentrations in U.K. breadmaking wheat grain. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 82, 1160-1165. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.1167

144.Lombi E., Zhao F. J., Fuhrmann, M., Ma, L.Q. and McGrath S. P. (2002) Arsenic distribution and speciation in the fronds of the hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata. New Phytologist, 156, 195-203. doi:10.1046/j.1469-8137.2002.00512.x

145.Zhao F. J., Dunham S. J. and McGrath S. P. (2002) Arsenic hyperaccumulation by different fern species. New Phytologist, 156, 27-31. doi:10.1046/j.1469-8137.2002.00493.x

146.Riley, N.L., Zhao, F.J. and McGrath, S.P. (2002) Leaching of sulphur from different sulphur fertilisers: A lysimeter study. Soil Use and Management, 18, 120-126. doi:10.1111/j.1475-2743.2002.tb00229.x

147.Lombi, E., Tearall, K.L., Howarth, J.R. Zhao, F.J., Hawkesford, M.J. and McGrath, S.P. (2002) Influence of iron status on cadmium and zinc uptake by different ecotypes of the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens. Plant Physiology, 128, 1359-1367.  doi:10.1104/pp.010731


148.Lombi E., Zhao F.J., Zhang G., Sun B., Fitz W., Zhang H., McGrath S.P. (2002) In situ fixation of metals in soils using bauxite residue: chemical assessment. Environmental Pollution, 118, 435-443. doi:10.1016/S0269-7491(01)00294-9    

149.Lombi E., Zhao F , Wieshammer, G., Zhang G., McGrath S.P. (2002) In situ fixation of metals in soils using bauxite residue: biological assessment. Environmental Pollution, 118, 445-452. doi:10.1016/S0269-7491(01)00295-0    

150.Tye A.M., Young S.D., Crout N.M.J., Zhang H., Preston S., Bailey E. H., Davison W., McGrath S.P., Paton G.I. and Killham K. (2002) Predicting arsenic solubility in contaminated soils using isotopic dilution techniques. Environmental Science and Technology, 36, 982-988. doi:10.1021/es0101633

151.McGrath, S. P., Zhao, F. J. and Lombi, E. (2002) Phytoremediation of metals, metalloids and radionuclides. Advances in Agronomy, 75, 1-56.

152.Badawy, S.H., Helal, M.I.D., Chaudri, A.M., Lawlor, K. and McGrath S.P. (2002) Soil solid-phase controls lead activity in soil solution. Journal of Environmental Quality, 31, 162-167.

153.Whiting S.N., Leake J.R., McGrath S.P., and Baker, A.J.M. (2001) Hyperaccumulation of Zn by Thlaspi caerulescens can ameliorate Zn toxicity in the rhizosphere of co-cropped Thlaspi arvense. Environmental Science and Technology, 35, 3237-3241. doi: 10.1021/es010644m

154.Whiting S.N., Leake J.R., McGrath, S.P. and Baker A.J.M. (2001) Assessment of Zn mobilization in the rhizosphere of Thlaspi caerulescens by bioassay with non-accumulator plants and soil extraction.  Plant and Soil, 237, 147-156. doi:10.1023/A:1013365617841

155.Lombi E., Zhao F. J., Dunham S.J., and McGrath S.P. (2001) Phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils: natural hyperaccumulation versus chemically-enhanced phytoextraction. Journal of Environmental Quality, 30, 1919-1926.

156.Hall, J.R., Reynolds, B., Sparks, T., Colgan, A., Thornton, I. and McGrath, S.P. (2001) The relationship between topsoil and stream sediment heavy metal concentrations and acidification. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 130, 1067-1072. doi:10.1023/A:1013986529633

157.Gillett, A. G., Crout, N. M. J., Absalom, J. P., Wright, S. M., Young, S. D., Howard, B. J., Barnett, C. L., McGrath, S. P., Beresford, N. A., Voigt, G. (2001). Temporal and spatial prediction of radiocaesium transfer to food products. Radiation and Environmental Biophysics, 40, 227-235. doi:10.1007/s004110100107

158.Küpper, H., Lombi, E., Zhao, F.J. Wieshammer, G. and McGrath, S.P. (2001) Cellular compartmentation of nickel in the hyperaccumulators Alyssum lesbiacum, Alyssum bertolonii and Thlaspi goesingense. Journal of Experimental Botany, 52, 2291-2300.

159.McGrath, S. P., Zhao, F. J. and Lombi, E. (2001) Plant and rhizosphere processes involved in phytoremediation of metal-contaminated soils. Plant and Soil, 232, 207-214. doi:10.1023/A:1010358708525

160.Whiting S.N., Leake J.R., McGrath S.P. and Baker A.J.M. (2001) Zinc accumulation by Thlaspi caerulescens from soils with different Zn availability: a pot study Plant and Soil. 236, 11-18. doi:10.1023/A:1011950210261

161.Chaudri, A.M., Allain, C.M.G, Badawy, S.H., Adams M.L., McGrath S.P. and Chambers B.J. (2001) Cadmium content of wheat grain from a long-term field experiment with sewage sludge. Journal of Environmental Quality, 30, 1575-1580.

162.Zhao, F.J, Verkampen, K.C.J., Birdsey, M., Blake-Kalff, M.M.A. and McGrath, S.P. (2001). Use of the enriched stable isotope 34S to study sulphur uptake and distribution in wheat. Journal of Plant Nutrition 24, 1551-1560. doi: 10.1081/PLN-100106020

163.Adams, M.L., Zhao, F.J., McGrath, S.P., Nicholson, F.A. and Sinclair, A.H. (2001)  Trace elements in UK wheat: from selenium deficiency to heavy metal contamination by cadmium and lead.  Aspects of Applied Biology, 64, 209-216.

164.Hale, K.L., McGrath, S.P., Lombi, E., Stack, S.M., Terry, N., Pickering, I.J., George, G.N. and Pilon-Smits, E.A.H. (2001) Molybdenum sequestration in Brassica species. A role for anthocyanins? Plant Physiology, 126, 1391-1402.

165.Knights, J.S., Zhao, F.J., McGrath, S.P. and Magan, N. (2001). Long-term effects of land use and fertiliser treatments on sulphur transformation in the soils from the Broadbalk experiment. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 33, 1797-1804. doi:10.1016/j.soilbio.2008.01.026    

166.Zhao, F.J., Spiro, B. and McGrath, S.P. (2001). Trends in 13C/12C ratios and C isotope discrimination of wheat since 1845. Oecologia, 128, 336-342. doi:10.1007/s004420100663

167.Crosland, A.R., Zhao, F. J. and McGrath, S. P. (2001). Inter-laboratory comparison of sulphur and nitrogen analysis in plants and soils. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 32, 685-695. doi: 10.1081/CSS-100103901

168.Zhang, H., Zhao, F.J., Sun, B., Davison, W., and McGrath S.P. (2001) A new method to measure effective soil solution concentration predicts copper availability to plants. Environmental Science and Technology, 35, 2602-2607.  doi: 10.1021/es000268q

169.Sun B., Zhao F.J., Lombi E., McGrath S.P. (2001) Leaching of heavy metals from contaminated soils using EDTA. Environmental Pollution, 113, 111-120. doi:10.1016/S0269-7491(00)00176-7   

170.Blake-Kalff, M.M.A., Zhao, F.J., Hawkesford, M.J. and McGrath, S.P. (2001) Using plant analysis to predict yield losses caused by sulphur deficiency.  Annals of Applied Biology, 138, 123-127. doi:10.1111/j.1744-7348.2001.tb00093.x

171.Lombi, E., Zhao, F.J., McGrath, S.P., Young S.D. and Saachi, G.A.  (2001) Physiological evidence for a high-affinity cadmium transporter highly expressed in a Thlaspi caerulescens ecotype. New Phytologist, 149, 53-60. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2001.00003.x

172.Knights J.S., Zhao F.J., Spiro B. and McGrath, S.P. (2000) Long-term effects of land use and fertilizer treatments on sulphur cycling. Journal of Environmental Quality 29, 1867-1874.

173.Vulkan R., Zhao F.J., Barbosa-Jefferson V.L., Preston S., Paton G.I., Tipping E., and McGrath S.P. (2000) Copper speciation and impacts on bacterial biosensors in the pore water of copper contaminated soils. Environmental Science and Technology. 34, 5115-5121. doi: 10.1021/es0000910

174.Blake-Kalff M.M.A., Hawkesford M.J., Zhao F.J., and McGrath S.P. (2000) Diagnosing sulfur deficiency in field-grown oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Plant and Soil, 225, 95-107. doi:10.1023/A:1026503812267

175.Küpper, H., Lombi, E., Zhao, F.J. and McGrath, S.P. (2000) Cellular compartmentation of cadmium and zinc in relation to other elements in the hyperaccumulator Aradidopsis halleriPlanta 212, 75-84. doi:10.1007/s004250000366

176.Lawlor, K., Knight, B.P., Barbosa-Jefferson, V.L., Lane, P.W., Lilley, A.K., Paton, G.I., McGrath, S.P., O'Flaherty, S.M., Hirsch, P.R. (2000) Comparison of different methods to investigate microbial populations in soils under different agricultural management. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 33, 129-137. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6941.2000.tb00735.x

177.Chaudri, A.M., Allain, C.M.G, Barbosa-Jefferson, V.L., Nicholson, F.A., Chambers, B.J. and McGrath S.P. (2000) A study of the impacts of Zn and Cu on two rhizobial species in soils of a long-term field experiment. Plant and Soil, 221, 167-179. doi:10.1023/A:1004735705492

178.Riley, N.J. Zhao, F.J. McGrath, S.P. (2000) Availability of different forms of sulphur fertilisers to wheat and oilseed rape. Plant and Soil, 222,139-147.  doi: 10.1023/A:1004757503831

179.McGrath, S.P., Zhao, F.J., Dunham, S.J., Crosland, A.R. and Coleman, K. (2000) Long-term changes in the extractability and bioavailability of zinc and cadmium. Journal of Environmental Quality, 29, 875-883.

180.Hutchinson, J.J. Young S.D., McGrath S.P., West H.M., Black C.R. and Baker A.J.M. (2000) Determining uptake of ‘non-labile’ soil cadmium by Thlaspi caerulescens using isotopic dilution techniques. New Phytologist, 146, 453-460. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.2000.00657.x

181.Zhao, F.J, Lombi, E., Breedon, T. and McGrath, S.P. (2000) Zinc hyperaccumulation and cellular distribution in Arabidopsis halleriPlant Cell and Environment, 23, 507-514. doi:10.1046/j.1365-3040.2000.00569.x

182.Whiting, S.N., Leake, J.R., McGrath S.P. and Baker A.J.M. (2000) Positive responses to Zn and Cd by roots of the Zn and Cd hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens. New Phytologist, 145, 199-210. doi:10.1046/j.1469-8137.2000.00570.x

183.Chaudri, A.M., Lawlor, K. and McGrath, S.P. (2000) Pentachlorophenol utilization by indigenous soil microorganims. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 32, 429-432. doi:10.1016/S0038-0717(99)00171-6   

184.Chaudri, A.M., Lawlor, K., Preston, S., Paton, G.I., Killham, K. and McGrath, S.P. (2000) Response of a Rhizobium-based biosensor to Zn and Cu in soil solutions from sewage sludge treated soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 32, 383-388. doi:10.1016/j.soilbio.2008.01.026    

185.Lombi, E., Zhao, F.J., Dunham, S.J. and McGrath, S.P. (2000) Cadmium accumulation in populations of Thlaspi caerulescens and Thlaspi goesingense. New Phytologist, 145, 11-20. doi:10.1046/j.1469-8137.2000.00560.x

186.Giller, K.E., Witter, E. and McGrath, S.P. (1999) Assessing risks of heavy metal toxicity in agricultural soils: Do microbes matter? Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 5, 683-689. doi: 10.1080/10807039991289581

187.Hamon R.E., Holm P.E., Lorenz S.E., McGrath S.P. and Christensen T.H. (1999) Metal uptake by plants from sludge-amended soils: caution is required in the plateau interpretation. Plant and Soil. 216, 53-64. doi:10.1023/A:1004780720809

188.McGrath, S.P., Knight B., Killham K., Preston S. and Paton G. I. (1999) Assessment of the toxicity of metals in soils amended with sewage sludge using a chemical speciation technique and a lux-based biosensor Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 18, 659-663. doi: 10.1897/1551-5028(1999)018<0659:AOTTOM>2.3.CO

189.Zhao, F.J., Wood, A.P. and McGrath S.P. (1999). Effects of sulphur nutrition on growth and nitrogen fixation of pea (Pisum sativum L.). Plant and Soil, 212, 207-217. doi:10.1023/A:1004618303445

190.Zhao, F.J., Salmon, S.E., Withers, P.J.A., Evans, E.J., Monaghan, J.M., Shewry, P.R. and McGrath, S.P. (1999) Responses of breadmaking quality to sulphur in three wheat varieties. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 79, 1-10.

191.Zhao, F.J., Hawkesford, M.J. and McGrath, S.P. (1999) Sulphur assimilation and effects on yield and quality of wheat. Journal of Cereal Science, 30, 1-17. doi:10.1006/jcrs.1998.0241 

192.Zhao, F.J., Salmon, S.E., Withers, P.J.A., Monaghan, J.M., Evans, E.J., Shewry, P.R. and McGrath, S.P. (1999) Variation in the breadmaking quality and rheological properties of wheat in relation to sulphur nutrition under field conditions. Journal of Cereal Science, 30, 19-31. doi:10.1006/jcrs.1998.0244  

193.Lawlor, K., Chaudri, A.M., McGrath, S.P. and Hirsch, P.R. (1999) Gene transfer in bacteria from soils contaminated with heavy metals. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 28, 317-320. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2672.1999.00520.x

194.McGrath, S.P. and Chaudri, A.M. (1999) Long-term effects of metal contamination on Rhizobium. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 31, 1205-1207. doi:10.1016/S0038-0717(99)00024-3  

195.Chaudri, A.M. Knight B.P., Barbosa-Jefferson V.L., Preston S., Paton G.I., Killham K. Coad N., Nicholson F.A., Chambers B.J., and McGrath, S.P. (1999) Determination of acute Zn toxicity in pore water from soils previously treated with sewage sludge using bioluminescence assays. Environmental Science and Technology, 33, 1880-1885. doi: 10.1021/es980753+

196.Küpper H., Zhao F.J., and McGrath, S.P. (1999) Cellular compartmentation of zinc in leaves of the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens. Plant Physiology, 119, 305-311.

197.Zhang, H., Davison, W., Knight, B. and McGrath, S.P. (1998) In situ measurement of solution concentrations and fluxes

Measures of esteem


  • President, International Society for Trace Element Biogeochemistry
  • Honorary Fellow, International Society for Selenium Research


  • Member of Steering Committee: Biochar Risk Assessment Framework, Edinburgh University
  • Member of NERC Peer Review College


  • Vice President: Int Society Trace Element Biogeochemistry


  • Management Committee - Mineral-improved crop production for healthy food and feed: EU COST Action FA0905
  • Andrew Mathers: Nottingham University


  • Tristan Eagling: UEA
  • Charlotte Lomax: Aberdeen University


  • Katie Moore: Oxford University


  • Secretary: Int Society Trace Element Biogeochemistry
  • Management Board Member: Cross-Institute Programme


  • Highly Cited Scientist: ISI - Environment and Ecology
  • ISI Highly Cited Researcher:
  • Dr M Morales-Scott: Nottingham University


  • Journal of Environmental Quality: Technical Editor


  • Dr P Schelmerdine: University of Nottingham


  • Plant Cell Environment
  • Special Professor: University of Nottingham
  • Committee on Toxicants and Pathogens: US National Academy of Sciences


  • New Phytologist: Advisor to Editorial Board
  • Research Medal: Royal Ag Society England


  • Journal of Environmental Quality: Associate Editor
  • Regional Environment Protection Advisory Committee: UK Environment Agency


  • Acaemic status: Reading University
  • Chair Sub Commission G: International Union of Soil Sciences


  • Distinuguished Visiting Scientist - Waite Institut: University of Adelaide


  • Soil Biology and Biochemistry: Subject Editor
  • Honorary Professor: Liverpool John Mooores University


  • SCI: 1st Environment Medal



  • PhD in Physiological Ecology (Sheffield University)


  • BSc in Plant Science (Sheffield University)