20:20 Wheat ®
Ensuring food security is a major challenge for the future. Wheat provides a fifth of human calories, but since 1980 the rate of increase in wheat yields has declined. The average farm yield of wheat in the UK is currently 8.4 tonnes per hectare. Our aim is to provide the knowledge base and tools to increase UK wheat yield potential to 20 tonnes of wheat per hectare within the next 20 years.
Building on the expertise at Rothamsted Research, this strategic theme will be delivered through four programmes:
1. Maximizing yield potential. With the requirement for novel approaches to increase yield, we will focus on genotype improvement to improve total crop biomass and grain yield through improved photosynthetic efficiency, altered canopy and root architecture, modified seed development and enhanced nutrient utilisation efficiency. This will be introduced utilising breeding, exploiting novel germplasm, transgenesis and other forms of genome remodelling. The potential for these approaches to offer substantial increases in yield is exemplified by the difference between C3 and C4 plants, where, for a given volume of water, photosynthetic efficiencies can be 50% higher in a C4 plant because of the suppression of photorespiration (1, 2, 3, 4).
2. Protecting yield potential. We will use advanced technologies to mitigate losses through pests and diseases. This will encompass the aetiological agents for Septoria leaf blotch, Fusarium ear blight and “Take-all” which have the highest negative impacts on wheat yields in the UK and elsewhere. Robust solutions to these diseases could contribute 5 to 10% in average yield increases (5, 6, 7).
3. Determining soil resource interactions. We will develop a mechanistic understanding of how soil properties and root characteristics interact to determine water uptake and nutrient acquisition. Efficient water utilisation is a prerequisite for efficient photosynthesis and yet wheat can be very sensitive to changes in osmotic potential resulting in reduced photosynthetic efficiency. The potential of this approach to contribute substantially to yield could be in the region of 10 to 18% (8, 9).
4. Using systems approaches to crop improvement. We will, through crop models based on physiological and environmental parameters, explore gene-environment interactions, deconvolute complex traits (e.g resource-use efficiency) and explore the performance of wheat ideotypes under climate change (10).
1. Barraclough, P. B., Howarth, J. R., Jones, J., Lopez-Bellido, R., Parmar, S., Shepherd, C. E. & Hawkesford, M. J. (2010) Nitrogen efficiency of wheat: genotypic and environmental variation and prospects for improvement. European Journal of Agronomy 33, 1-11. DOI: 10.1016/j.eja.2010.01.005
2. Rieu, I., Ruiz-Rivero, O., Fernandez-Garcia, N., Griffiths, J., Powers, S. J., Gong, F., Linhartova, T., Eriksson, S., Nilsson, O.,Thomas, S. G., Phillips, A. L. & Hedden, P. (2008) The gibberellin biosynthetic genes AtGA20ox1 and AtGA20ox2 act, partially redundantly, to promote growth and development throughout the Arabidopsis life cycle. The Plant Journal 53, 488-504. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2007.03356.x
3. Parry, M. A. J., Reynolds. M., Salvucci, M. E., Raines, C., Andralojc, P. J., Zhu, X.-G., Price, G. D., Condon, A. G. & Furbank, R.(2011) Raising yield potential of wheat: increasing photosynthetic capacity and efficiency. Journal of Experimental Botany 62, 453-468. DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erq304
4. Ward, J. L., Baker, J. M., Llewellyn, A. M., Hawkins, N. D. & Beale, M. H. (2011) Metabolomic analysis of Arabidopsis reveals hemiterpenoid glycosides as products of a nitrate ion regulated, carbon flux overflow. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 108, 10762-10767. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1018875108
5. Ma L-J. et al. (2010) Comparative genomics reveals mobile pathogenicity chromosomes in Fusarium. Nature 464, 367-373. DOI: 10.1038/nature08850
6. Marshall, R., Kombrink, A., Motteram, J., Loza-Reyes, E.,Lucas, J. A., Hammond-Kosack, K. E., Thomma, B. P. H. J. & Rudd, J. J. (2011) Analysis of two in planta expressed LysM effector homologues from the fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola reveals novel functional properties and varying contributions to virulence on wheat. Plant Physiology 156, 756-769. DOI: 10.1104/pp.111.176347
7. Goodwin, S. B. et al. (2011) The finished genome of the fungal wheat pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola reveals dispensome structure, chromosome plasticity and stealth pathogenesis. PLoS Genetics 7, e1002070. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002070
8. Chapman, N., Whalley, W. R., Lindsey, K. & Miller, A. J. (2011) Water supply and not nitrate concentration determines primary root growth in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell and Environment 34, 1630-1638. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2011.02358.x
9. McMillan, V. E., Hammond-Kosack, K. E. & Gutteridge, R. J. (2011) Evidence that wheat varieties differ in their ability to build-up inoculum of the take-all fungus, Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, under a first wheat crop. Plant Pathology 60, 200-206. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3059.2010.02375.x
10. Semenov, M. A. & Shewry, P. R. (2011) Modelling predicts that heat stress, not drought, will increase vulnerability of wheat in Europe. Scientific Reports 1, 66 doi:10.1038/srep00066. DOI: 10.1038/srep00066
Amaral A, Antoniw J, Rudd JJ, Hammond-Kosack KE (2012) Defining the predicted protein secretome of the fungal wheat leaf pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola. PLoS ONE, 7, 12.
Andralojc PJ, Madgwick PJ, Keys AJ, Loveland JE, Jackson PJ, Willis AC, Gutteridge S, Parry MAJ (2012) 2-Carboxy-D-arabinitol 1-phosphate (CA1P) phosphatase – evidence for a wider role in plant Rubisco regulation. Biochemical Journal, 442, 733-742.
Bai C, Liang Y, Hawkesford MJ (2013) Identification of QTL associated with seedling root traits and their correlation with mature plant height in wheat. Journal of Experimental Botany, 64, 1745-53.
Barraclough PB, Lopez-Bellido R, Hawkesford MJ (2014) Genotypic variation in the uptake, partitioning and remobilisation of nitrogen during grain-filling in wheat. Field Crops Research, 156, 242-248.
Bhattacharya A, Kourmpetli S, Ward DA et al. (2012) Characterization of the Fungal Gibberellin Desaturase as a 2-Oxoglutarate-Dependent Dioxygenase and Its Utilization for Enhancing Plant Growth. Plant Physiology, 160, 837-845.
Brown NA, Antoniw J, Hammond-Kosack KE (2012) The Predicted Secretome of the Plant Pathogenic Fungus Fusarium graminearum: A Refined Comparative Analysis PLoS ONE: Research Article, published 06 Apr 2012 10.1371/journal.pone.0033731.
Calanca P & Semenov MA (2013) Local-scale climate scenarios for impact studies and risk assessments: integration of early 21st century ENSEMBLES projections into the ELPIS database. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 113, 445-455.
Chapman N, Miller A, Lindsey K, Whalley, W (2012) Roots, water, and nutrient acquisition: let's get physical. Trends in Plant Science, 17, 701/710.
Chen L, Huang L, Min D, Phillips A, Wang S, Madgwick PJ, Parry MAJ, Hu Y-G (2012) Development and characterization of a new TILLING population of common bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L). PlosOne 7 e41570.
Chen L, Phillips AL, Condon AG, Parry MAJ, Hu Y-G (2013) GA-responsive dwarfing gene rht12 affects the developmental and agronomic traits in common bread wheat. PLOS ONE 10.1371/journal.pone.0062285
Chen Z, Muttucumaru N, Powers SJ, Halford NG (2013) Expression analysis of ABA signalling factors in developing embryo and endosperm of barley. Journal of Cereal Science, 58, 255-262.
Chiurugwi T, Holmes HF, Qi A, Chia TYP, Hedden P, Mutasa-Gottgens ES (2012) Development of new quantitative physiological and molecular breeding parameters based on the sugar-beet vernalisation intensity model. J. Agric. Sci. doi: 10.1017/S0021859612000573.
Coelho Filho MA, Colebrook EH, Lloyd DPA Webster CP, Mooney SJ, Phillips AL, Hedden P, Whalley WR (2013) The involvement of gibberellin signalling in the effect of soil resistance to root penetration on leaf elongation and tiller number in wheat. Plant and Soil, 371, 81-94.
Colebrook EH, Thomas SG, Phillips AL, Hedden P (2014) The role of gibberellin signalling in plant responses to abiotic stress. Journal of Experimental Biology, 217, 67-75.
Conti L, Nelis S, Zhang C, Woodcock A, Swarup R, Galbiati M, Tonelli C, Napier R, Hedden P, Bennett M, Sadanandom A (2014) Small ubiquitin-like modifier protein SUMO enables plants to control growth independently of the phytohormone gibberellin. Developmental Cell, 28, 102-110.
Cools HJ, Hammond-Kosack KE (2012) Exploitation of genomics in fungicide research: current status and future perspectives. Molecular Plant Pathology (on line early). doi:10.1111/mpp.12001.
Curtis TY, Postles J, Halford NG (2013) Reducing the potential for processing contaminant formation in cereal products. Journal of Cereal Science, DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2013.11.002
Dayan J, Voronin N, Gong F, Sun TP, Hedden P, Fromm H, Aloni A (2012) Leaf-Induced Gibberellin Signaling Is Essential for Internode Elongation, Cambial Activity, and Fiber Differentiation in Tobacco Stems. Plant Cell, 24, 66-79.
De Kok LJ, Tausz M, Hawkesford MJ, Hoefgen R, McManus MT, Norton RM, Rennenberg H, Saito K, Schnug E, Tabe L (2012) Sulfur Metabolism in Plants: Mechanisms and Applications to Food Security and Responses to Climate Change. Springer.
Dean R, van Kan JAL, Pretorius ZA, Hammond-Kosack KE, Pietro AD, Spanu P.D., RUDD J.J., Dickman M., Kahmann R., Ellis J., Foster G.D.. 2012. The Top 10 fungal pathogens in molecular plant pathology. Molecular Plant Pathology, 13 (4), 414–430.
Derkx A, Orford S, Griffith S, Foulkes J, Hawkesford MJ (2012) Identification of differentially senescing mutants of wheat and impacts on yield, biomass and nitrogen partitioning. J. Integr Plant Biol, 54, 555-566.
Fan J, Urban M, Parker JE, Brewer HC, Kelly SL, Hammond-Kosack KE, Fraaije BA, Liu X, Cools HJ (2013) Characterization of the sterol 14alpha-demethylases of Fusarium graminearum identifies a novel genus-specific CYP51 function. New Phytologist 198, 821-835.
Gallego-Bartolome J, Minguet EG, Grau-Enguix F, Abbas M, Locascio A, Thomas SG, Alabadi D, Blazquez MA (2012) Molecular mechanism for the interaction between gibberellin and brassinosteroid signaling pathways in Arabidopsis. P Natl Acad Sci USA, 109, 13446-13451.
Gao W, Watts CW, Ren T, Shin H-C, Taherzadeh S, Attenborourgh K, Jenkins M, Whalley WR (2013) The relationships between velocities of shear and compression waves and soil physical characteristics. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 77, 721–728.
Garcia-Hurtado N, Carrera E, Ruiz-Rivero O, Lopez-Gresa MP, Hedden P, Gong F, Garcia-Martinez JL (2012) The characterization of transgenic tomato overexpressing gibberellin 20-oxidase reveals induction of parthenocarpic fruit growth, higher yield, and alteration of the gibberellin biosynthetic pathway. Journal of Experimental Botany, 63, 5803-5813.
Gasperini D, Greenland A, Hedden P, Dreos R, Harwood W, Griffiths S (2012) Genetic and physiological analysis of Rht8 in bread wheat: an alternative source of semi-dwarfism with a reduced sensitivity to brassinosteroids. Journal of Experimental Botany, 63, 4419-4436.
Gebre E, Schluter U, Hedden P, Kunert K (2012) Gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitors help control plant height for improving lodging resistance in E. tef ( Eragrostis tef). Journal of Crop Improvement, 26, 375-388.
Geisser et al. (2013) (56 authors including Hammond-Kosack, K.E.) One fungus, one name: defining the genus fusarium in a scientifically robust way that preserves longstanding use. Phytopathology, 103, 400-408.
Halford NG (2012) Toward two decades of plant biotechnology: successes, failures, and prospects. Food and Energy Security, 1, 9-28.
Hawkesford MJ (2013) Reducing the reliance on nitrogen fertiliser for wheat production Journal of Cereal Science http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2013.12.001.
Hawkesford MJ (November 2012) Improving Nutrient Use Efficiency in Crops. In: eLS 2012, John Wiley & Sons Ltd: Chichester http://www.els.net/ [DOI: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0023734]
Hawkesford MJ, Araus J-L, Park R, Calderini D, Miralles D, Shen T, Zhang J, Parry MAJ (2013) Prospects of doubling global wheat yields. Food and Energy Security, doi: 10.1002/fes3.15.
Hawkesford MJ, Parmar S and Buchner P (2012) Mineral composition analysis: measuring anion uptake and anion concentrations in plant tissues. In: Methods in Molecular Biology: Plant Mineral Nutrition, Humana Press, USA pp109-119.
He J, Le Gouisa J, Stratonovitchc P, Allarda V, Gajud O, Heumeze E, Orfordf S, Griffithsf S, Snape JW, Foulkes MJ, Semenov MA, Martre P. (2012) Simulation of environmental and genotypic variations of final leaf number and anthesis date for wheat. European Journal of Agronomy, 42, 22-33.
Hedden P, Thomas S (2012) Gibberellin biosynthesis and its regulation. Biochem. J., 444, 11-25
Helliwell JR, Sturrock CJ, Grayling KM, Tracy SR, Flavel RJ, Young IM, Whalley WR,. Mooney SJ (2013) Applications of X-ray computed tomography for examining the soil physical environment. European Journal of Soil Science, 64, 279-297.
Höglind M, Thorsen SM, Semenov MA (2012) Quantifying uncertainty in impact of climate change on grass production in Northern Europe using ensembles of climate predictions Agricultural and Forest Meteorology (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2012.02.010)
Jiang F, Chen L, Belimov AA, Shaposhnikov AI, Gong F, Meng X, Hartung W, Jaschke DW, Davies WJ, Dodd IC (2012) Multiple impacts of the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Variovara paradoxus 5C-2 on nutrient and ABA relations of Pisum sativum. Journal of Experimental Botany, 63, 6421-6430
Jin K, Shen J, Ashton R, Dodd IC, Parry MAJ, Whalley WR (2013) How do roots elongate in structured soil? Journal of Experimental Botany, 64, 4761–4777.
Kauserud H, Heegaard E, Büntgen U, Halvorsen R, Egli S, Boddy L, Senn-Irlet B, Greilhuber I, Dämon W, Sparks T, Nordén J, Høiland K, Kirk P, Semenov MA, & Stenseth NC (2012), Warming-induced shift in European mushroom fruiting phenology. P Natl Acad Sci USA 109 (36): 14488-14493
Kauserud H, Heegaard E, Büntgen U, Halvorsen R, Egli S, Senn-Irlet B, Greilhuber I, Dämon W, Nordén J, Høiland K, Kirk P, Semenov MA, & Stenseth NC, Boddy L (2013) Reply to Gange et al.: Climate-driven changes in the fungal fruiting season in the United Kingdom. P Natl Acad Sci USA 110 (5): E335.
Kondhare KR, Kettlewell PS, Farrell AD, Hedden P, Monaghan JM (2013) The role of sensitivity to abscisic acid and gibberellin in pre-maturity α-amylase formation in wheat grains. Journal of Cereal Science 58, 472–478.
Kondhare KR, Kettlewell PS, Farrell AD, Hedden P, Monoghan JM. 2012. Effects of exogenous abscisic acid and gibberellic acid on pre-maturity α-amylase formation in wheat grains. Euphytica 188, 51-60.
Laudone GM, Matthews GP, Gregory AS, Bird NRA, Whalley WR (2013) A dual-porous, inverse model of water retention for the study of biohydrological processes in soil European Journal of Soil Science, 64, 345-356.
Lee W-S, Hammond-Kosack KE & Kanyuka K. 2012. Barley stripe mosaic virus-mediated tools for investigating gene function in cereal plants and their pathogens: VIGS, HIGS and VOX. Plant Physiology 582-590 (Front cover of the October issue).
Lin Y, Yang L, Paul M, Zu Y, Tang Z (2013) Ethylene promotes germination of Arabidopsis seed under salinity by decreasing reactive oxygen species: evidence for the involvement of nitric oxide simulated by sodium nitroprusside. Plant Physiology Biochemistry 73, 211-218.
Macleod CJA, Humphreys MW, Whalley WR, Turner L, Binley A, Watts CW, Skøt L, Joynes A, Hawkins S, King IP, O’Donovan S, Haygarth PM (2013) A novel grass hybrid to reduce flooding. Scientific Reports 3, 1683, DOI:10.1038/srep01683.
McMillan VE, Hammond-Kosack KE, Gutteridge RJ (2013) Confidential report to Syngenta, over-sow field trial 2012.
Méndez C, Baginsky C, Hedden P, Gong F, Carú M, Rojas MC (2014) Gibberellin oxidase activities in bradyrhizobium japonicum bacteroids. Phytochemistry, 98, 101-109
Merhej J, Urban M, Dufresne M, Hammond-Kosack KE, Richard-Forget F, Barreau C (2012). The velvet gene, FgVe1, affects fungal development and positively regulates trichothecene biosynthesis and pathogenicity in Fusarium graminearum. Molecular Plant Pathology 13, 363-374.
Middleton AM, Ubeda-Tomas S, Griffiths J, Holman T, Hedden P, Thomas SG, Phillips AL, Holdsworth MJ, Bennett MJ, King JR., Owen MR. (2012). Mathematical modeling elucidates the role of transcriptional feedback in gibberellin signaling. P Natl Acad Sci USA, 109, 7571-7576.
Mutasa-Gottgens ES, Joshi A, Holmes HF, Hedden P, Gottgens B (2012) A new RNASeq-based reference transcriptome for sugar beet and its application in transcriptome-scale analysis of vernalization and gibberellin responses. BMC Genomics 13.
Paolacci AR, Celletti S, Catarcione G, Hawkesford MJ, Astolfi S, Ciaffi M (2014) Iron deprivation results in a rapid increase of the expression of genes involved in uptake of sulfate in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seedlings. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology, 56, 88-100.
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Pedro A, Savin R, Parry MAJ, Slafer GA (2012) Selection for high grain number per unit stem length through four generations from mutants in a durum wheat population to increase yields of individual plants and crops. Field Crops Research, 129, 59–70
Plackett ARG, Ferguson AC, Powers SJ, Wanchoo-Kohli A, Phillips AL, Wilson ZA, Hedden P, Thomas SG (2013) DELLA activity is required for successful pollen development in the Columbia ecotype of Arabidopsis. New Phytologist, Online DOI: 10.1111/nph.12571
Reynolds M, Foulkes J, Furbank R, Griffiths S, King J, Murchie E, Parry MAJ, Slafer G (2012) Achieving yield gains in wheat. Plant Cell Environment, 35, 1799-1823.
Robinson DA, Hockley N, Cooper D, Emmett BA, Keith AM, Lebron I, Reynolds B, Tipping E, Tye AM, Watts CW, Whalley WR, Black HIJ, Warren GP, Robinson JS (2013) Natural capital and ecosystem services, developing an appropriate soils framework as a basis for valuation. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 57, 1023 -1033.
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Semenov MA, Stratonovitch P (2013) Designing high-yielding wheat ideotypes for a changing climate. Food and Energy Security DOI: 10.1002/fes3.34
Shahbaz M, Parmar S, Stuiver CEE, Hawkesford MJ, De Kok, LJ (2013) Copper toxicity and sulphur metabolism in Chinese cabbage are affected by UV radiation. Environmental and Experimental Botany 88, 60-70.
Shahbaz M, Stuiver CEE, Posthumus FS, Parmar S, Hawkesford MJ, De Kok LJ (2014) Copper toxicity in Chinese cabbage is not influenced by plant sulphur status, but interferes with correlations between sulphur metabolism-related gene expression and the suggested regulatory metabolites. Plant Biology 16, 68-78.
Sharkey TD, Ducruet J-M, Parry MAJ (2012) A synopsis about the biochemistry and photochemistry of terrestrial photosynthesis. In Ecophysiology of Photosynthesis Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. 9-19
Shewry P, Hawkesford M, Piironen V, Lampi A-M, Gebguers K, Boros D, Andersson A, Åman P, Rakszegi M, Bedo Z, Ward J (2013) Natural Variation in Grain Composition of Wheat and Related Cereals. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 61, 8295-8303.
Shin H-C, Taherzadeh S, Attenborough K, Whalley WR, Watts CW (2013) Non-invasive soil parameter deduction using acoustic-seismic coupling and linear Biot-Stoll theory. European Journal Soil Science, 64, 308-323.
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Storkey J, Stratonovitch P, Semenov MA (2014) A process-based approach to predicting the effect of climate change on the impact of an invasive allergenic plant in Europe. PLoS ONE 9, 388156.
Studt L, Troncoso C, Gong F, Hedden P, Toomajian C, Leslie JF, Humpf HU, Rojas MC, Tudzynski B. 2012. Segregation of secondary metabolite biosynthesis in hybrids of Fusarium fujikuroi and Fusarium proliferatum. Fungal Genet Biol 49, 567-577.
Sun YW, Jones HD, Yang Y, Dreisigacker S, Li SM, Chen XM, Shewry PR, Xia LQ (2012) Haplotype analysis of Viviparous-1 gene in CIMMYT elite bread wheat germplasm. Euphytica, 186, 25-43.
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Teillet A, Dybal K, Kerry BR, Miller AJ, Curtis RHC, Hedden P (2013) Transcriptional changes of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita in response to Arabidopsis thaliana root signals. PLOS ONE 10.1371/journal.pone.0061259
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Wan Y, Shewry PR, Hawkesford MJ (2013) A novel family of γ-gliadin genes are highly regulated by nitrogen supply in developing wheat grain. Journal of Experimental Botany 64, 161-168.
Whalley WR, Dodd IC, Watts CW, Webster CP, Phillips AL, Andralojc J, White RP, Davies WJ, Parry MAJ (2013) Genotypic variation in the ability of wheat roots to penetrate wax layers. Plant and Soil 364, 171–179.
Whalley WR, Jenkins M, Attenborough K (2012) The velocity of shear waves in unsaturated soil. Soil and Tillage Research, 123, 30-37.
Whalley WR, Ober ES, Jenkins M (2013) Measurement of the matric potential of soil water in the rhizosphere. J. Exp. Bot. 64, 3951-3963.
Whalley WR, Ferraris S, Matthews GP (2012) Effect of Compaction and Shear Deformation of Saturated Soil on Hydraulic Conductivity. Soil & Tillage Research, 125, 23-29.
Xia L, Y Ma, Yi He and HD Jones (2012) GM wheat development in China: current status and challenges to commercialization. Journal of Experimental Botany 63, 1785-1790.
Yu X, Jones HD, Ma Y, Wang G, Xu Z, Zhang B, Zhang Y, Ren G, Pickett JA, Xia L (2012) (E)-β-Farnesene synthase genes affect aphid (Myzus persicae) infestation in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). Functional and Integrative Genomics 12, 207-213.
Yu X-D, Pickett J, Ma YZ, Bruce T, Napier J, Jones HD, Xia L-Q (2012). Metabolic engineering of plant-derived (E)-β-farnesene synthase genes for a novel type of aphid-resistant genetically modified crop plants. Journal of Institute of Integrative Plant Biology 54, 282-299.
Zhang M, Zhou Y, Wang H, Jones HD, Gao Q, Wang D, Ma Y, Xia L (2013) Identifying potential RNAi targets in grain aphid (Sitobion avenae F.) based on transcriptome profiling of its alimentary canal after feeding on wheat plants. BMC Genomics 2013, 14:560. doi:10.1186/1471-2164-14-560.