Rothamsted Research

where knowledge grows

A fast and easily achieved method for propagating disease-free willow spells good news for traditional breeding schemes

Willow shoots cultured from sterilised plant bud tissue.

Rothamsted Research scientists make advances in biotechnology, with a method for propagating willow free of disease, in a shorter time, with less labour compared to traditional willow breeding.

Scientists at Rothamsted Research have used a fast and easily achieved method for multiplying a wide range of willows. The method, a form of micro-propagation, produced more plants which were free of disease, in a shorter time, with less labour compared to traditional willow breeding methods. The disease-free plants were exported to, and grown in, Canada; a country, like many others, where the risk of the spread of willow borne diseases often causes a ban on importation. The research, which was strategically-funded by the BBSRC, is published today in the Canadian Journal of Forest Research.

The micro-propagation method used by the scientists, allowed for rapid, lab-based, multiplication and establishment of individual willow clones. The clones were, specially cultured from sterilised plant bud tissue taken from a single willow tree. A simple, single growth medium, supplemented with a plant hormone, was used to successfully culture the cuttings. Taken from the lab, the tissue-culture plants were then successfully grown in the field.

Commenting on the success of the work  Dr Elena Palomo-Rios, research scientist at the Department of Plant Biology & Crop Science, Rothamsted Research, said: “By careful optimisation of plant cuttings and media components we found we could produce almost 5000 disease-free willow clones from a single plant in only 24 weeks and showed this method could be used for a wide range of different willow types.”

Traditional, field-based, plant breeding involves sexual reproduction of a male and female plant which show some desired traits. From the offspring produced plants which show the desired traits most are then bred together. This process is repeated over many generations, each time selecting and breeding together those plants that have the desired traits.

Through the traditional breeding process desired traits, such a rapid growth, high biomass, erect shoots and disease resistance, can be honed. However, reaching the necessary amount of plant material needed for large scale field testing of new varieties, in a range of environments, can be slow and labour intensive work. For example, the Rothamsted Research willow breeding scheme takes six years from the very first step in traditional breeding, to the time at which there is enough plant material to carry out replicated field tests. Additionally, while the plants can be bred for disease resistance, complete removal of plant pathogens in field-grown material is not possible.

Emphasising the importance and value of the micro-propagation method, Prof Huw Jones, Head of the Plant Transformation & Tissue Culture Laboratory at Rothamsted Research, said: “This method significantly reduces the time required to generate the number of plants needed to carry out multisite yield tests, and for the first time allows the export of disease free material to markets that are currently inaccessible due to phytosanitary restrictions”.

The scientists suggest that if micro-propagation of willow was included in the early phase of the traditional Rothamsted willow breeding scheme there is potential to reduce the timescale for breeding new varieties by four to five years.

Recognising the potential application of the research findings, Prof Angela Karp, who leads Rothamsted Research’s strategic research programme ‘Cropping Carbon’, said: “Driven by the challenge to reduce dependency on fossil fuels and help build the bioeconomy, there has been an increasing interest in growing improved willow varieties for renewable energy and diverse bioproducts. The micro-propagation method enables fast propagation and distribution of disease-free willows from our breeding programme in the UK for multiplication, trialling and use in a wide range of countries. 



Learning from the “healthy” to protect the “infected”

A novel mechanism has been identified which likely contributes to resistance against Septoria leaf blotch in plant species normally non-infected with the disease, providing the clues necessary to develop control methods in wheat.

State of Nature report: views from Rothamsted Research

Rothamsted Research scientists comment on the 2016 State of Nature report.

Pupils take on farming challenge

Teams of school pupils pitch their ideas to reduce slug damage to crops after meeting scientists at Rothamsted Research and visiting a local farm.

Seek and you shall find: bees remain excellent searchers even when sick

Scientists have found that honeybees exhibit a characteristic flight pattern to explore their surroundings, even when affected by disease.


Rothamsted Press Office

For further information, please contact:

Dr Matina Tsalavouta (, Tel: +44 (0) 1582 938 525

About Rothamsted Research

We are the longest running agricultural research station in the world, providing cutting-edge science and innovation for over 170 years. Our mission is to deliver the knowledge and new practices to increase crop productivity and quality and to develop environmentally sustainable solutions for food and energy production.

Our strength lies in the integrated, multidisciplinary approach to research in plant, insect and soil science.

Rothamsted Research is strategically funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC). In 2013-2014 Rothamsted Researched received a total of £32.9M from the BBSRC.


The Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) invests in world-class bioscience research and training on behalf of the UK public. Our aim is to further scientific knowledge, to promote economic growth, wealth and job creation and to improve quality of life in the UK and beyond.

Funded by Government, BBSRC invested over £509M in world-class bioscience in 2014-15. We support research and training in universities and strategically funded institutes. BBSRC research and the people we fund are helping society to meet major challenges, including food security, green energy and healthier, longer lives. Our investments underpin important UK economic sectors, such as farming, food, industrial biotechnology and pharmaceuticals.

For more information about BBSRC, our science and our impact see:

For more information about BBSRC strategically funded institutes see: