20:20 Wheat ®
Principal Investigator: Martin Parry
Increasing wheat productivity to yield 20 tonnes per hectare in 20 years.
Ensuring food security is a major challenge for the future. Wheat provides a fifth of human calories, but since 1980 the rate of increase in wheat yields has declined. The average farm yield of wheat in the UK is currently 8.4 tonnes per hectare. Our aim is to provide the knowledge base and tools to increase UK wheat yield potential to 20 tonnes of wheat per hectare within the next 20 years.
Building on the expertise at Rothamsted Research, this strategic theme will be delivered through four programmes:
1. Barraclough, P. B., Howarth, J. R., Jones, J., Lopez-Bellido, R., Parmar, S., Shepherd, C. E. & Hawkesford, M. J. (2010) Nitrogen efficiency of wheat: genotypic and environmental variation and prospects for improvement. European Journal of Agronomy 33, 1-11. DOI: 10.1016/j.eja.2010.01.005
2. Rieu, I., Ruiz-Rivero, O., Fernandez-Garcia, N., Griffiths, J., Powers, S. J., Gong, F., Linhartova, T., Eriksson, S., Nilsson, O.,Thomas, S. G., Phillips, A. L. & Hedden, P. (2008) The gibberellin biosynthetic genes AtGA20ox1 and AtGA20ox2 act, partially redundantly, to promote growth and development throughout the Arabidopsis life cycle. The Plant Journal 53, 488-504. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2007.03356.x
3. Parry, M. A. J., Reynolds. M., Salvucci, M. E., Raines, C., Andralojc, P. J., Zhu, X.-G., Price, G. D., Condon, A. G. & Furbank, R.(2011) Raising yield potential of wheat: increasing photosynthetic capacity and efficiency. Journal of Experimental Botany 62, 453-468. DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erq304
4. Ward, J. L., Baker, J. M., Llewellyn, A. M., Hawkins, N. D. & Beale, M. H. (2011) Metabolomic analysis of Arabidopsis reveals hemiterpenoid glycosides as products of a nitrate ion regulated, carbon flux overflow. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 108, 10762-10767. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1018875108
5. Ma L-J. et al. (2010) Comparative genomics reveals mobile pathogenicity chromosomes in Fusarium. Nature 464, 367-373. DOI: 10.1038/nature08850
6. Marshall, R., Kombrink, A., Motteram, J., Loza-Reyes, E.,Lucas, J. A., Hammond-Kosack, K. E., Thomma, B. P. H. J. & Rudd, J. J. (2011) Analysis of two in planta expressed LysM effector homologues from the fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola reveals novel functional properties and varying contributions to virulence on wheat. Plant Physiology 156, 756-769. DOI: 10.1104/pp.111.176347
7. Goodwin, S. B. et al. (2011) The finished genome of the fungal wheat pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola reveals dispensome structure, chromosome plasticity and stealth pathogenesis. PLoS Genetics 7, e1002070. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002070
8. Chapman, N., Whalley, W. R., Lindsey, K. & Miller, A. J. (2011) Water supply and not nitrate concentration determines primary root growth in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell and Environment 34, 1630-1638. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2011.02358.x
9. McMillan, V. E., Hammond-Kosack, K. E. & Gutteridge, R. J. (2011) Evidence that wheat varieties differ in their ability to build-up inoculum of the take-all fungus, Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, under a first wheat crop. Plant Pathology 60, 200-206. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3059.2010.02375.x
10. Semenov, M. A. & Shewry, P. R. (2011) Modelling predicts that heat stress, not drought, will increase vulnerability of wheat in Europe. Scientific Reports 1, 66 doi:10.1038/srep00066. DOI: 10.1038/srep00066
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